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  1. Seventeen of 172 included studies in a recent systematic review of blood tests for hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis reported diagnostic accuracy results discordant from 2 × 2 tables, and 60 studies reported inade...

    Authors: Shelley S Selph, Alexander D Ginsburg and Roger Chou

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:107

    Content type: Methodology

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  2. Chronic musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent, affecting around one in five people across Europe. Osteoarthritis, low back pain, neck pain and other musculoskeletal disorders are leading causes of disabilit...

    Authors: Joanne Marley, Mark A Tully, Alison Porter-Armstrong, Brendan Bunting, John O’Hanlon and Suzanne M McDonough

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:106

    Content type: Protocol

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  3. A high level of resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed against penicillins, sulphonamides, tetracyclines and quinolones, and recent surveillance data have shown a gradual reduction in sensitivity to cu...

    Authors: Emma Hathorn, Divya Dhasmana, Lelia Duley and Jonathan DC Ross

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:104

    Content type: Research

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  4. There is a high unmet need for effective treatments for patients with squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eli Lilly and Company is conducting a phase III, randomized, multicenter, open-label study of ...

    Authors: Amy M DeLozier, Jacqueline Brown, Fanni Natanegara, Luping Zhao, Zhanglin Lin Cui, Stephen L Able, Lee Bowman, Joseph Treat and Lisa M Hess

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:102

    Content type: Protocol

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  5. Safety of vaccines remains a cornerstone of building public trust on the use of these cost-effective and life-saving public health interventions. In some settings, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a h...

    Authors: Benjamin M Kagina, Charles S Wiysonge, Maia Lesosky, Shabir A Madhi and Gregory D Hussey

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:101

    Content type: Protocol

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  6. Vaccines are the most successful and cost-effective public health interventions available to avert vaccine-preventable diseases and deaths. Despite progress in the field of adolescent health, many young people...

    Authors: Leila H Abdullahi, Benjamin M Kagina, Tali Cassidy, Esther F Adebayo, Charles S Wiysonge and Gregory D Hussey

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:100

    Content type: Protocol

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  7. Livestock and poultry operations that feed large numbers of animals are common. Facility capacity varies, but it is not uncommon for facilities to house 1,000 swine with multiple barns at a single site, feedlo...

    Authors: Annette M O’Connor, Brent W Auvermann, Julian PT Higgins, Shelley P Kirychuk, Jan M Sargeant, Susanna G Von Essen, Julie M Glanville and Hannah Wood

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:99

    Content type: Protocol

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  8. Quality improvement (QI) methods are widely used in surgery in an effort to improve care, often using techniques such as Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles to implement specific interventions. Explicit definition of bot...

    Authors: Emma Jones, Nicholas Lees, Graham Martin and Mary Dixon-Woods

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:98

    Content type: Protocol

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  9. Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are examples of chronic diseases that impose significant morbidity and mortality in the general population worldwide. Most chronic diseases are associated with underl...

    Authors: Adrienne Stevens, Candyce Hamel, Kavita Singh, Mohammed T Ansari, Esther Myers, Paula Ziegler, Brian Hutton, Arya Sharma, Lise M Bjerre, Shannon Fenton, Robert Gow, Stasia Hadjiyannakis, Kathryn O’Hara, Catherine Pound, Erinn Salewski, Ian Shrier…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:96

    Content type: Protocol

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  10. The production, prescription, and consumption of opioid analgesics to treat non-cancer pain have increased dramatically in the USA in the past decade. As a result, misuse of these opioids has increased; overdo...

    Authors: Ashly E Jordan, Don Des Jarlais and Holly Hagan

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:95

    Content type: Protocol

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  11. Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is a common cause of iatrogenic acute kidney injury (AKI). Most of the published estimates of AKI after contrast use originate from the cardiac catheterization literature d...

    Authors: Jeanne Françoise Kayibanda, Swapnil Hiremath, Greg A Knoll, Dean Fergusson, Benjamin JW Chow, Wael Shabana and Ayub Akbari

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:94

    Content type: Protocol

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  12. Community pharmacists can deliver health care advice at an opportunistic level, related to prescription or non-prescription medicines and as part of focused services designed to reduce specific risks to health...

    Authors: Adam Todd, Helen J Moore, Andrew K Husband, Clare Bambra, Adetayo Kasim, Falko F Sniehotta, Liz Steed and Carolyn D Summerbell

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:93

    Content type: Protocol

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  13. Adverse transfusion reactions in the neonatal population are poorly understood and defined. The incidence and pattern of adverse effects due to red blood cell (RBC) transfusion are not well known, and there ha...

    Authors: Amy Keir, Sanchita Pal, Marialena Trivella, Lani Lieberman, Jeannie Callum, Nadine Shehata and Simon Stanworth

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:92

    Content type: Protocol

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  14. Arts-based activities are being increasingly suggested as a valuable activity for people living with dementia in terms of countering the negative aspects of their condition. The potential for such programmes t...

    Authors: Gill Windle, Samantha Gregory, Andrew Newman, Anna Goulding, Dave O'Brien and Clive Parkinson

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:91

    Content type: Protocol

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  15. Recurrent miscarriage is generally defined as three or more miscarriages before gestational week 20. Recurrent miscarriage affects 1% of all women and the condition can only be explained by parental chromosome...

    Authors: Pia Egerup, Jane Lindschou, Christian Gluud and Ole Bjarne Christiansen

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:89

    Content type: Protocol

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  16. To improve quality of care and patient outcomes, health system decision-makers need to identify and implement effective interventions. An increasing number of systematic reviews document the effects of quality...

    Authors: Noah Ivers, Andrea C Tricco, Thomas A Trikalinos, Issa J Dahabreh, Kristin J Danko, David Moher, Sharon E Straus, John N Lavis, Catherine H Yu, Kaveh Shojania, Braden Manns, Marcello Tonelli, Timothy Ramsay, Alun Edwards, Peter Sargious, Alison Paprica…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:88

    Content type: Protocol

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  17. Abacavir is one of the recommended nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for the treatment of HIV infections among children and adolescents. However, there are concerns that the antiviral efficac...

    Authors: Olatunji O Adetokunboh, Anel Schoonees and Charles S Wiysonge

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:87

    Content type: Protocol

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  18. The cluster randomized crossover (CRXO) design is gaining popularity in trial settings where individual randomization or parallel group cluster randomization is not feasible or practical. In a CRXO trial, not ...

    Authors: Sarah J Arnup, Andrew B Forbes, Brennan C Kahan, Katy E Morgan, Steve McDonald and Joanne E McKenzie

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:86

    Content type: Protocol

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  19. Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death in the world. Evidence indicates that behaviours such as tobacco use can influence social networks, and that social network structures can influence be...

    Authors: Raglan Maddox, Rachel Davey, Ray Lovett, Anke van der Sterren, Joan Corbett and Tom Cochrane

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:85

    Content type: Protocol

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  20. Current early childhood systems of care are not geared to respond to the complex needs of preschoolers at risk for mental health problems in a timely, coordinated, multidisciplinary, and comprehensive fashion....

    Authors: Normand J Carrey, Janet A Curran, Robin Greene, Alicia Nolan and Alan McLuckie

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:84

    Content type: Protocol

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  21. Asthma is a frequent chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, and the assessment of health-related quality of life (HrQoL) is important in both research and routine care. Various asthma-specific measures o...

    Authors: Christian Apfelbacher, Priya Paudyal, Alpaslan Bülbül and Helen Smith

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:83

    Content type: Protocol

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  22. The grading of recommendation, assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) approach is widely implemented in health technology assessment and guideline development organisations throughout the world. GRADE ...

    Authors: Nick Meader, Kristel King, Alexis Llewellyn, Gill Norman, Jennifer Brown, Mark Rodgers, Thirimon Moe-Byrne, Julian PT Higgins, Amanda Sowden and Gavin Stewart

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:82

    Content type: Methodology

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  23. The concept of early health technology assessment, discussed well over a decade, has now been collaboratively implemented by industry, government, and academia to select and expedite the development of emergin...

    Authors: Ba’ Pham, Hong Anh Thi Tu, Dolly Han, Petros Pechlivanoglou, Fiona Miller, Valeria Rac, Warren Chin, Andrea C Tricco, Mike Paulden, Joanna Bielecki and Murray Krahn

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:81

    Content type: Protocol

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  24. Assessment of design heterogeneity conducted prior to meta-analysis is infrequently reported; it is often presented post hoc to explain statistical heterogeneity. However, design heterogeneity determines the m...

    Authors: Michelle D Althuis, Douglas L Weed and Cara L Frankenfeld

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:80

    Content type: Methodology

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  25. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is the result of infection ascending through the endocervix to the uterus and fallopian tubes. Inflammation driven by infected host cells appears to be central to the developm...

    Authors: Divya Dhasmana, Emma Hathorn, Racheal McGrath, Anjum Tariq and Jonathan DC Ross

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:79

    Content type: Research

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  26. Authors: Pablo Alonso-Coello, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Ignacio Neumann, Elie A Akl, Xin Sun, Bradley C Johnston, Matthias Briel, Jason W Busse, Demián Glujovsky, Carlos E Granados, Alfonso Iorio, Affan Irfan, Laura Martínez García, Reem A Mustafa, Anggie Ramirez-Morera…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:76

    Content type: Erratum

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Systematic Reviews 2013 2:113

  27. Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are of...

    Authors: Guy Tsafnat, Paul Glasziou, Miew Keen Choong, Adam Dunn, Filippo Galgani and Enrico Coiera

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:74

    Content type: Commentary

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  28. Whilst the majority of young people succeed in education and make a positive transition to the world of work and adult life, recent statistics identify that youth comprise 40% of the world's unemployed, equati...

    Authors: Emily J Oliver, Lauren Mawn, Helen J Stain, Clare L Bambra, Carole Torgerson, Anita Oliver and Chris Bridle

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:73

    Content type: Protocol

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  29. There is no consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of lifestyle modification interventions, including recommendations about specific diet or exercise program for patients with breast cancer. D...

    Authors: Maicon Falavigna, Karine Margarites Lima, Juliana Giacomazzi, Diego d’Avila Paskulin, Luciano Serpa Hammes, Rodrigo Antonini Ribeiro and Daniela Dornelles Rosa

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:72

    Content type: Protocol

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  30. Digestive disorders pose significant burdens to millions of people worldwide in terms of morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Turmeric has been traditionally used for conditions associated with the diges...

    Authors: Kednapa Thavorn, Muhammad M Mamdani and Sharon E Straus

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:71

    Content type: Protocol

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  31. Placenta-mediated pregnancy complications include pre-eclampsia, late pregnancy loss, placental abruption, and the small-for-gestational age newborn. They are leading causes of maternal, fetal, and neonatal mo...

    Authors: Marc A Rodger, Nicole J Langlois, Johanna IP de Vries, Évelyne Rey, Jean-Christophe Gris, Ida Martinelli, Ekkehard Schleussner, Timothy Ramsay, Ranjeeta Mallick, Becky Skidmore, Saskia Middeldorp, Shannon Bates, David Petroff, Dick Bezemer, Marion E van Hoorn, Carolien NH Abheiden…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:69

    Content type: Protocol

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  32. Epilepsy affects about 1% of the general population. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) prevent or terminate seizures in individuals with epilepsy. Pregnant women with epilepsy may continue taking AEDs. Many of these...

    Authors: Andrea C Tricco, Elise Cogo, Veroniki A Angeliki, Charlene Soobiah, Brian Hutton, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, David Moher, Yaron Finkelstein and Sharon E Straus

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:68

    Content type: Protocol

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  33. An exponential increase in the number of systematic reviews published, and constrained resources for new reviews, means that there is an urgent need for guidance on explicitly and transparently integrating exi...

    Authors: Karen A Robinson, Evelyn P Whitlock, Maya E Oneil, Johanna K Anderson, Lisa Hartling, Donna M Dryden, Mary Butler, Sydne J Newberry, Melissa McPheeters, Nancy D Berkman, Jennifer S Lin and Stephanie Chang

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:60

    Content type: Research

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  34. Systematic reviews that address policy and practice questions in relation to complex interventions frequently need not only to assess the efficacy of a given intervention but to identify which intervention - a...

    Authors: James Thomas, Alison O’Mara-Eves and Ginny Brunton

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:67

    Content type: Methodology

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  35. Anemia is a prevalent condition in critically ill patients and red blood cell transfusions are frequent. Although transfusions at low hemoglobin levels have been shown to be associated with equivalent or bette...

    Authors: Amélie Boutin, Michaël Chassé, Michèle Shemilt, François Lauzier, Lynne Moore, Ryan Zarychanski, Jacques Lacroix, Dean A Fergusson, Philippe Desjardins and Alexis F Turgeon

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:66

    Content type: Protocol

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  36. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are used to identify where organisational performance is meeting desired standards and where performance requires improvement. Valid and reliable KPIs depend on the availabili...

    Authors: Brenda Gannon, Cheryl Jones, Abel Wakai and Ronan O’Sullivan

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:65

    Content type: Protocol

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  37. Patients with end-stage renal disease who receive kidney transplants have improved survival and quality of life compared to patients on dialysis. Unfortunately, transplant patients often have a low vitamin D c...

    Authors: Caitlin C Hesketh, Greg A Knoll, Amber O Molnar, Anne Tsampalieros and Deborah L Zimmerman

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:64

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  38. Power and precision are greater in meta-analyses than individual study analyses. However, dichotomisation of continuous outcomes in certain studies poses a problem as estimates from primary studies can only be...

    Authors: Mercy Ofuya, Odile Sauzet and Janet L Peacock

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:63

    Content type: Methodology

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  39. Social anxiety is among the most prevalent and debilitating affective disturbances manifest in people with psychosis. It is usually accompanied by high levels of depression and leads to significant social disa...

    Authors: Maria Michail, Max Birchwood and Lynda Tait

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:62

    Content type: Protocol

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  40. Health behaviours are important determinants of health and adoption of unhealthy behaviour is considered as one of the mechanisms through which immigrants’ health changes over time in the host country. The cha...

    Authors: Suresh Joshi, Santosh Jatrana, Yin Paradies and Naomi Priest

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:61

    Content type: Protocol

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  41. The number of systematic reviews (SRs)/meta-analyses (MAs) has increased dramatically in China over the past decades. However, evaluation of quality of reporting of systematic reviews published has not been un...

    Authors: Jin-long Li, Long Ge, Ji-chun Ma, Qiao-ling Zeng, Lu Yao, Ni An, Jie-xian Ding, Yu-hong Gan and Jin-hui Tian

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:58

    Content type: Methodology

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  42. Nurses and allied health care professionals (physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech and language pathologists, dietitians) form more than half of the clinical health care workforce and play a centra...

    Authors: Wendy A Gifford, Paul Holyoke, Janet E Squires, Douglas Angus, Lucie Brosseau, Mary Egan, Ian D Graham, Carol Miller and Lars Wallin

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:57

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  43. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act subsidizes implementation by hospitals of electronic health records with computerized provider order entry (CPOE), which may redu...

    Authors: Teryl K Nuckols, Crystal Smith-Spangler, Sally C Morton, Steven M Asch, Vaspaan M Patel, Laura J Anderson, Emily L Deichsel and Paul G Shekelle

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:56

    Content type: Research

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