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  1. The production of high quality systematic reviews requires rigorous methods that are time-consuming and resource intensive. Citation screening is a key step in the systematic review process. An opportunity to ...

    Authors: Lauren Ng, Veronica Pitt, Kit Huckvale, Ornella Clavisi, Tari Turner, Russell Gruen and Julian H Elliott
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:121
  2. Adults spend the majority of their time being sedentary, and evidence suggests that those who spend more of their day engaged in sedentary activities (TV viewing, sitting, screen-based activities) are at incre...

    Authors: Stephanie A Prince, Katelin M Gresty, Jennifer L Reed, Erica Wright, Mark S Tremblay and Robert D Reid
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:120
  3. Medical device procurement processes for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are a poorly understood and researched topic. To support LMIC policy formulation in this area, international public health orga...

    Authors: Karin Diaconu, Yen-Fu Chen, Semira Manaseki-Holland, Carole Cummins and Richard Lilford
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:118
  4. Neuroborreliosis is a tick-borne infectious disease of the nervous system caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Common clinical manifestations of neuroborreliosis are cranial nerve dysfunctions, polyradiculoneuritis, a...

    Authors: Rick Dersch, Michael H Freitag, Stefanie Schmidt, Harriet Sommer, Gerta Rücker, Sebastian Rauer and Joerg J Meerpohl
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:117
  5. Antipsychotic medications, particularly second-generation antipsychotics, are increasingly being used to alleviate the symptoms of schizophrenia and other severe mental disorders in the pediatric population. W...

    Authors: Eric Druyts, Shawn Eapen, Ping Wu and Kristian Thorlund
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:116
  6. Scleroderma affects the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in 90% of all cases. Malnutrition, diarrhea, and constipation are some GI complications that can stem from scleroderma, and they contribute considerably to i...

    Authors: Brian Younho Hong, Raymond Giang, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Maggie Larche and Lehana Thabane
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:115
  7. Review of theory is an area of growing methodological advancement. Theoretical reviews are particularly useful where the literature is complex, multi-discipline, or contested. It has been suggested that adopti...

    Authors: Mhairi Campbell, Matt Egan, Theo Lorenc, Lyndal Bond, Frank Popham, Candida Fenton and Michaela Benzeval
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:114
  8. Research has indicated that adverse effects terms are increasingly prevalent in the title, abstract or indexing terms of articles that contain adverse drug effects data in MEDLINE and Embase. However, it is un...

    Authors: Su Golder, Kath Wright and Mark Rodgers
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:113
  9. Risk for lung cancer in workers exposed to benzidine (BZ) and/or beta-naphthylamine (BNA), which are well-known bladder carcinogens, has been examined in many epidemiological studies, but individual epidemiolo...

    Authors: Kimiko Tomioka, Keigo Saeki, Kenji Obayashi, Yuu Tanaka and Norio Kurumatani
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:112
  10. Childhood overweight and obesity are associated with significant health consequences. Early and successful treatment of this public health issue is necessary. Although several intervention programs for childre...

    Authors: Laila B van der Heijden, Edith JM Feskens and Arieke J Janse
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:111
  11. The use of network meta-analysis has increased dramatically in recent years. WinBUGS, a freely available Bayesian software package, has been the most widely used software package to conduct network meta-analys...

    Authors: Stephen Brown, Brian Hutton, Tammy Clifford, Doug Coyle, Daniel Grima, George Wells and Chris Cameron
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:110
  12. Chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, impose significant burden to public health. Most chronic diseases are associated with underlying preventable risk factors, such as elevated...

    Authors: Candyce Hamel, Adrienne Stevens, Kavita Singh, Mohammed T Ansari, Esther Myers, Paula Ziegler, Brian Hutton, Arya Sharma, Lise M Bjerre, Shannon Fenton, David CW Lau, Kathryn O’Hara, Robert Reid, Erinn Salewski, Ian Shrier, Noreen Willows…
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:108
  13. Seventeen of 172 included studies in a recent systematic review of blood tests for hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis reported diagnostic accuracy results discordant from 2 × 2 tables, and 60 studies reported inade...

    Authors: Shelley S Selph, Alexander D Ginsburg and Roger Chou
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:107
  14. Chronic musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent, affecting around one in five people across Europe. Osteoarthritis, low back pain, neck pain and other musculoskeletal disorders are leading causes of disabilit...

    Authors: Joanne Marley, Mark A Tully, Alison Porter-Armstrong, Brendan Bunting, John O’Hanlon and Suzanne M McDonough
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:106
  15. Opioids are psychoactive analgesic drugs prescribed for pain relief and palliative care. Due to their addictive potential, effort and vigilance in controlling prescriptions is needed to avoid misuse and depend...

    Authors: Brittany Burns Dennis, Leen Naji, Monica Bawor, Ashley Bonner, Michael Varenbut, Jeff Daiter, Carolyn Plater, Guillaume Pare, David C Marsh, Andrew Worster, Dipika Desai, Zainab Samaan and Lehana Thabane
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:105
  16. A high level of resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed against penicillins, sulphonamides, tetracyclines and quinolones, and recent surveillance data have shown a gradual reduction in sensitivity to cu...

    Authors: Emma Hathorn, Divya Dhasmana, Lelia Duley and Jonathan DC Ross
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:104
  17. Lean is a set of operating philosophies and methods that help create a maximum value for patients by reducing waste and waits. It emphasizes the consideration of the customer’s needs, employee involvement and ...

    Authors: Adegboyega K Lawal, Thomas Rotter, Leigh Kinsman, Nazmi Sari, Liz Harrison, Cathy Jeffery, Mareike Kutz, Mohammad F Khan and Rachel Flynn
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:103
  18. There is a high unmet need for effective treatments for patients with squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eli Lilly and Company is conducting a phase III, randomized, multicenter, open-label study of ...

    Authors: Amy M DeLozier, Jacqueline Brown, Fanni Natanegara, Luping Zhao, Zhanglin Lin Cui, Stephen L Able, Lee Bowman, Joseph Treat and Lisa M Hess
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:102
  19. Safety of vaccines remains a cornerstone of building public trust on the use of these cost-effective and life-saving public health interventions. In some settings, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a h...

    Authors: Benjamin M Kagina, Charles S Wiysonge, Maia Lesosky, Shabir A Madhi and Gregory D Hussey
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:101
  20. Vaccines are the most successful and cost-effective public health interventions available to avert vaccine-preventable diseases and deaths. Despite progress in the field of adolescent health, many young people...

    Authors: Leila H Abdullahi, Benjamin M Kagina, Tali Cassidy, Esther F Adebayo, Charles S Wiysonge and Gregory D Hussey
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:100
  21. Livestock and poultry operations that feed large numbers of animals are common. Facility capacity varies, but it is not uncommon for facilities to house 1,000 swine with multiple barns at a single site, feedlo...

    Authors: Annette M O’Connor, Brent W Auvermann, Julian PT Higgins, Shelley P Kirychuk, Jan M Sargeant, Susanna G Von Essen, Julie M Glanville and Hannah Wood
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:99
  22. Quality improvement (QI) methods are widely used in surgery in an effort to improve care, often using techniques such as Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles to implement specific interventions. Explicit definition of bot...

    Authors: Emma Jones, Nicholas Lees, Graham Martin and Mary Dixon-Woods
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:98
  23. Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are examples of chronic diseases that impose significant morbidity and mortality in the general population worldwide. Most chronic diseases are associated with underl...

    Authors: Adrienne Stevens, Candyce Hamel, Kavita Singh, Mohammed T Ansari, Esther Myers, Paula Ziegler, Brian Hutton, Arya Sharma, Lise M Bjerre, Shannon Fenton, Robert Gow, Stasia Hadjiyannakis, Kathryn O’Hara, Catherine Pound, Erinn Salewski, Ian Shrier…
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:96
  24. The production, prescription, and consumption of opioid analgesics to treat non-cancer pain have increased dramatically in the USA in the past decade. As a result, misuse of these opioids has increased; overdo...

    Authors: Ashly E Jordan, Don Des Jarlais and Holly Hagan
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:95
  25. Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is a common cause of iatrogenic acute kidney injury (AKI). Most of the published estimates of AKI after contrast use originate from the cardiac catheterization literature d...

    Authors: Jeanne Françoise Kayibanda, Swapnil Hiremath, Greg A Knoll, Dean Fergusson, Benjamin JW Chow, Wael Shabana and Ayub Akbari
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:94
  26. Community pharmacists can deliver health care advice at an opportunistic level, related to prescription or non-prescription medicines and as part of focused services designed to reduce specific risks to health...

    Authors: Adam Todd, Helen J Moore, Andrew K Husband, Clare Bambra, Adetayo Kasim, Falko F Sniehotta, Liz Steed and Carolyn D Summerbell
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:93
  27. Adverse transfusion reactions in the neonatal population are poorly understood and defined. The incidence and pattern of adverse effects due to red blood cell (RBC) transfusion are not well known, and there ha...

    Authors: Amy Keir, Sanchita Pal, Marialena Trivella, Lani Lieberman, Jeannie Callum, Nadine Shehata and Simon Stanworth
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:92
  28. Arts-based activities are being increasingly suggested as a valuable activity for people living with dementia in terms of countering the negative aspects of their condition. The potential for such programmes t...

    Authors: Gill Windle, Samantha Gregory, Andrew Newman, Anna Goulding, Dave O'Brien and Clive Parkinson
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:91
  29. Recurrent miscarriage is generally defined as three or more miscarriages before gestational week 20. Recurrent miscarriage affects 1% of all women and the condition can only be explained by parental chromosome...

    Authors: Pia Egerup, Jane Lindschou, Christian Gluud and Ole Bjarne Christiansen
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:89
  30. To improve quality of care and patient outcomes, health system decision-makers need to identify and implement effective interventions. An increasing number of systematic reviews document the effects of quality...

    Authors: Noah Ivers, Andrea C Tricco, Thomas A Trikalinos, Issa J Dahabreh, Kristin J Danko, David Moher, Sharon E Straus, John N Lavis, Catherine H Yu, Kaveh Shojania, Braden Manns, Marcello Tonelli, Timothy Ramsay, Alun Edwards, Peter Sargious, Alison Paprica…
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:88
  31. Abacavir is one of the recommended nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for the treatment of HIV infections among children and adolescents. However, there are concerns that the antiviral efficac...

    Authors: Olatunji O Adetokunboh, Anel Schoonees and Charles S Wiysonge
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:87
  32. The cluster randomized crossover (CRXO) design is gaining popularity in trial settings where individual randomization or parallel group cluster randomization is not feasible or practical. In a CRXO trial, not ...

    Authors: Sarah J Arnup, Andrew B Forbes, Brennan C Kahan, Katy E Morgan, Steve McDonald and Joanne E McKenzie
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:86
  33. Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death in the world. Evidence indicates that behaviours such as tobacco use can influence social networks, and that social network structures can influence be...

    Authors: Raglan Maddox, Rachel Davey, Ray Lovett, Anke van der Sterren, Joan Corbett and Tom Cochrane
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:85
  34. Current early childhood systems of care are not geared to respond to the complex needs of preschoolers at risk for mental health problems in a timely, coordinated, multidisciplinary, and comprehensive fashion....

    Authors: Normand J Carrey, Janet A Curran, Robin Greene, Alicia Nolan and Alan McLuckie
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:84
  35. Asthma is a frequent chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, and the assessment of health-related quality of life (HrQoL) is important in both research and routine care. Various asthma-specific measures o...

    Authors: Christian Apfelbacher, Priya Paudyal, Alpaslan Bülbül and Helen Smith
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:83
  36. The grading of recommendation, assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) approach is widely implemented in health technology assessment and guideline development organisations throughout the world. GRADE ...

    Authors: Nick Meader, Kristel King, Alexis Llewellyn, Gill Norman, Jennifer Brown, Mark Rodgers, Thirimon Moe-Byrne, Julian PT Higgins, Amanda Sowden and Gavin Stewart
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:82
  37. The concept of early health technology assessment, discussed well over a decade, has now been collaboratively implemented by industry, government, and academia to select and expedite the development of emergin...

    Authors: Ba’ Pham, Hong Anh Thi Tu, Dolly Han, Petros Pechlivanoglou, Fiona Miller, Valeria Rac, Warren Chin, Andrea C Tricco, Mike Paulden, Joanna Bielecki and Murray Krahn
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:81
  38. Assessment of design heterogeneity conducted prior to meta-analysis is infrequently reported; it is often presented post hoc to explain statistical heterogeneity. However, design heterogeneity determines the m...

    Authors: Michelle D Althuis, Douglas L Weed and Cara L Frankenfeld
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:80
  39. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is the result of infection ascending through the endocervix to the uterus and fallopian tubes. Inflammation driven by infected host cells appears to be central to the developm...

    Authors: Divya Dhasmana, Emma Hathorn, Racheal McGrath, Anjum Tariq and Jonathan DC Ross
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:79
  40. Authors: Pablo Alonso-Coello, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Ignacio Neumann, Elie A Akl, Xin Sun, Bradley C Johnston, Matthias Briel, Jason W Busse, Demián Glujovsky, Carlos E Granados, Alfonso Iorio, Affan Irfan, Laura Martínez García, Reem A Mustafa, Anggie Ramirez-Morera…
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:76

    The original article was published in Systematic Reviews 2013 2:113

  41. Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are of...

    Authors: Guy Tsafnat, Paul Glasziou, Miew Keen Choong, Adam Dunn, Filippo Galgani and Enrico Coiera
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:74
  42. Whilst the majority of young people succeed in education and make a positive transition to the world of work and adult life, recent statistics identify that youth comprise 40% of the world's unemployed, equati...

    Authors: Emily J Oliver, Lauren Mawn, Helen J Stain, Clare L Bambra, Carole Torgerson, Anita Oliver and Chris Bridle
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:73
  43. There is no consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of lifestyle modification interventions, including recommendations about specific diet or exercise program for patients with breast cancer. D...

    Authors: Maicon Falavigna, Karine Margarites Lima, Juliana Giacomazzi, Diego d’Avila Paskulin, Luciano Serpa Hammes, Rodrigo Antonini Ribeiro and Daniela Dornelles Rosa
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:72

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