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  1. An exponential increase in the number of systematic reviews published, and constrained resources for new reviews, means that there is an urgent need for guidance on explicitly and transparently integrating exi...

    Authors: Karen A Robinson, Evelyn P Whitlock, Maya E Oneil, Johanna K Anderson, Lisa Hartling, Donna M Dryden, Mary Butler, Sydne J Newberry, Melissa McPheeters, Nancy D Berkman, Jennifer S Lin and Stephanie Chang

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:60

    Content type: Research

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  2. Systematic reviews that address policy and practice questions in relation to complex interventions frequently need not only to assess the efficacy of a given intervention but to identify which intervention - a...

    Authors: James Thomas, Alison O’Mara-Eves and Ginny Brunton

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:67

    Content type: Methodology

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  3. Anemia is a prevalent condition in critically ill patients and red blood cell transfusions are frequent. Although transfusions at low hemoglobin levels have been shown to be associated with equivalent or bette...

    Authors: Amélie Boutin, Michaël Chassé, Michèle Shemilt, François Lauzier, Lynne Moore, Ryan Zarychanski, Jacques Lacroix, Dean A Fergusson, Philippe Desjardins and Alexis F Turgeon

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:66

    Content type: Protocol

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  4. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are used to identify where organisational performance is meeting desired standards and where performance requires improvement. Valid and reliable KPIs depend on the availabili...

    Authors: Brenda Gannon, Cheryl Jones, Abel Wakai and Ronan O’Sullivan

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:65

    Content type: Protocol

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  5. Patients with end-stage renal disease who receive kidney transplants have improved survival and quality of life compared to patients on dialysis. Unfortunately, transplant patients often have a low vitamin D c...

    Authors: Caitlin C Hesketh, Greg A Knoll, Amber O Molnar, Anne Tsampalieros and Deborah L Zimmerman

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:64

    Content type: Protocol

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  6. Power and precision are greater in meta-analyses than individual study analyses. However, dichotomisation of continuous outcomes in certain studies poses a problem as estimates from primary studies can only be...

    Authors: Mercy Ofuya, Odile Sauzet and Janet L Peacock

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:63

    Content type: Methodology

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  7. Social anxiety is among the most prevalent and debilitating affective disturbances manifest in people with psychosis. It is usually accompanied by high levels of depression and leads to significant social disa...

    Authors: Maria Michail, Max Birchwood and Lynda Tait

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:62

    Content type: Protocol

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  8. Health behaviours are important determinants of health and adoption of unhealthy behaviour is considered as one of the mechanisms through which immigrants’ health changes over time in the host country. The cha...

    Authors: Suresh Joshi, Santosh Jatrana, Yin Paradies and Naomi Priest

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:61

    Content type: Protocol

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  9. The number of systematic reviews (SRs)/meta-analyses (MAs) has increased dramatically in China over the past decades. However, evaluation of quality of reporting of systematic reviews published has not been un...

    Authors: Jin-long Li, Long Ge, Ji-chun Ma, Qiao-ling Zeng, Lu Yao, Ni An, Jie-xian Ding, Yu-hong Gan and Jin-hui Tian

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:58

    Content type: Methodology

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  10. Nurses and allied health care professionals (physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech and language pathologists, dietitians) form more than half of the clinical health care workforce and play a centra...

    Authors: Wendy A Gifford, Paul Holyoke, Janet E Squires, Douglas Angus, Lucie Brosseau, Mary Egan, Ian D Graham, Carol Miller and Lars Wallin

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:57

    Content type: Protocol

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  11. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act subsidizes implementation by hospitals of electronic health records with computerized provider order entry (CPOE), which may redu...

    Authors: Teryl K Nuckols, Crystal Smith-Spangler, Sally C Morton, Steven M Asch, Vaspaan M Patel, Laura J Anderson, Emily L Deichsel and Paul G Shekelle

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:56

    Content type: Research

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  12. There has been a renewed interest in the place of birth, including intended home birth, for low risk women. In the absence of adequately-sized randomised controlled trials, a recent Cochrane review recommended...

    Authors: Eileen K Hutton, Angela Reitsma, Julia Thorpe, Ginny Brunton and Karyn Kaufman

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:55

    Content type: Protocol

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  13. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) myocardial perfusion imaging has been suggested as a non-invasive alternative to pressure wire guided fractional flow reserve (FFR) in detecting haemodynamically significant ob...

    Authors: Rebabonye B Pharithi, Martinus Meela, Thomas Kropmans, Frank Ward, Michael Conway and Michael Newell

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:53

    Content type: Protocol

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  14. Obesity is a significant public health issue and is socially patterned, with greater prevalence of obesity observed in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Recent evidence suggests that the prevale...

    Authors: Alexandra Chung, Kathryn Backholer, Evelyn Wong, Claire Palermo, Catherine Keating and Anna Peeters

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:52

    Content type: Protocol

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  15. Antiretroviral therapy reduces mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. However, these agents have been associated with preterm birth, a...

    Authors: Andrea C Tricco, Jesmin Antony, Veroniki A Angeliki, Huda Ashoor, Brian Hutton, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, David Moher, Yaron Finkelstein, Kevin Gough and Sharon E Straus

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:51

    Content type: Protocol

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  16. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of brief interventions (BIs) as part of the Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) model for reducing the nonmedic...

    Authors: Matthew M Young, Adrienne Stevens, James Galipeau, Tyler Pirie, Chantelle Garritty, Kavita Singh, Fatemeh Yazdi, Mohammed Golfam, Misty Pratt, Lucy Turner, Amy Porath-Waller, Cheryl Arratoon, Nancy Haley, Karen Leslie, Rhoda Reardon, Beth Sproule…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:50

    Content type: Research

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  17. Care homes in the UK rely on general practice for access to specialist medical and nursing care as well as referral to therapists and secondary care. Service delivery to care homes is highly variable in both q...

    Authors: Claire Goodman, Adam L Gordon, Finbarr Martin, Sue L Davies, Steve Iliffe, Clive Bowman, Justine Schneider, Julienne Meyer, Christina Victor, Heather Gage, John RF Gladman and Tom Dening

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:49

    Content type: Protocol

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  18. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in humans is caused by an unchecked proinflammatory response that results in diffuse and severe lung injury, and it is associated with a mortality rate of 35 to 45%. ...

    Authors: Manoj M Lalu, David Moher, John Marshall, Dean Fergusson, Shirley HJ Mei, Malcolm Macleod, Gilly Griffin, Alexis F Turgeon, Michael Rudnicki, Jason Fishman, Marc T Avey, Becky Skidmore, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Duncan J Stewart, Kavita Singh and Lauralyn McIntyre

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:48

    Content type: Protocol

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  19. Categorizing an inherently continuous predictor in prognostic analyses raises several critical methodological issues: dependence of the statistical significance on the number and position of the chosen cut-poi...

    Authors: Benjamin Kasenda, Willi Sauerbrei, Patrick Royston and Matthias Briel

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:46

    Content type: Protocol

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  20. Use of methadone for the treatment of opioid addiction is an effective harm-reduction approach, although variability in treatment outcomes among individuals has been reported. Men and women with opioid addicti...

    Authors: Monica Bawor, Brittany B Dennis, Rebecca Anglin, Meir Steiner, Lehana Thabane and Zainab Samaan

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:45

    Content type: Protocol

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  21. Several aggregate data meta-analyses suggest that treatment guided by the serum concentration of natriuretic peptides (B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or its derivative N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic pepti...

    Authors: Maria Pufulete, Julian PT Higgins, Chris A Rogers, Lucy Dreyer, William Hollingworth, Mark Dayer, Angus Nightingale, Theresa McDonagh and Barnaby C Reeves

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:41

    Content type: Protocol

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  22. The effects of stress on ill health have become evident in recent years. Under acute stress situations, a cascade of physiological events helps the body mount an appropriate adaptive response. However, under c...

    Authors: Jacklyn Quinlan, Mai Thanh Tu, Étienne V Langlois, Mohit Kapoor, Daniela Ziegler, Hassan Fahmi and Maria Victoria Zunzunegui

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:40

    Content type: Protocol

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  23. Systematic reviews of healthcare interventions most often focus on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, certain circumstances warrant consideration of observational evidence, and such studies are incr...

    Authors: Maya O’Neil, Nancy Berkman, Lisa Hartling, Stephanie Chang, Johanna Anderson, Makalapua Motu’apuaka, Jeanne-Marie Guise and Marian S McDonagh

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:35

    Content type: Research

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  24. Acquired brain injury (ABI), often arising from stroke or trauma, is a common cause of long-term disability, physical inactivity and poor health outcomes globally. Individuals with ABI face many barriers to in...

    Authors: Taryn M Jones, Julia M Hush, Blake F Dear, Nickolai Titov and Catherine M Dean

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:39

    Content type: Protocol

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  25. Chronic conditions are a major source of morbidity, mortality and cost worldwide. Shared decision making is one way to improve care for patients with chronic conditions. Although it has been widely studied, th...

    Authors: Michael R Gionfriddo, Aaron L Leppin, Juan P Brito, Annie LeBlanc, Kasey R Boehmer, Megan A Morris, Patricia J Erwin, Larry J Prokop, Claudia L Zeballos-Palacios, German Malaga, J Jaime Miranda, Heidi M McLeod, René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Rongchong Huang, Oscar L Morey-Vargas, Mohammad Hassan Murad…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:38

    Content type: Protocol

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  26. In 2008, the Cochrane Collaboration introduced a tool for assessing the risk of bias in clinical trials included in Cochrane reviews. The risk of bias (RoB) tool is based on narrative descriptions of evidence-...

    Authors: Jelena Savović, Laura Weeks, Jonathan AC Sterne, Lucy Turner, Douglas G Altman, David Moher and Julian PT Higgins

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:37

    Content type: Research

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  27. The toxic heavy metal lead continues to be a leading environmental risk factor, with the number of attributable deaths having doubled between 1990 and 2010. Although major sources of lead exposure, in particul...

    Authors: Lisa Maria Pfadenhauer, Jacob Burns, Anke Rohwer and Eva Annette Rehfuess

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:36

    Content type: Protocol

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  28. The burden of mental health and psychosocial problems in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. An increasing number of randomized stu...

    Authors: Marianna Purgato, Alden L Gross, Mark JD Jordans, Joop TVM de Jong, Corrado Barbui and Wietse Tol

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:34

    Content type: Protocol

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  29. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a significant public health burden. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a method of supported breathing used as standard care for acutely unwell patients in h...

    Authors: Chirag Dave, Alice Turner, Janine Dretzke, Sue Bayliss, Deirdre O’Brien, Sue Jowett and David Moore

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:32

    Content type: Protocol

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  30. Outbreaks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been reported in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in North America, Europe and Asia. Transmission is believed to be the result of exposure to blo...

    Authors: Holly Hagan, Joshua Neurer, Ashly E Jordan, Don C Des Jarlais, Jennifer Wu, Kirk Dombrowski, Bilal Khan, Ronald Scott Braithwaite and Jason Kessler

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:31

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  31. Early diagnosis and treatment of cancer is thought to be important for improving survival. Longer time between the onset of cancer symptoms and receipt of treatment may help explain the poorer survival of UK c...

    Authors: Lynne F Forrest, Sarah Sowden, Greg Rubin, Martin White and Jean Adams

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:30

    Content type: Protocol

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  32. This was a systematic review of the literature in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Evidence mapping was used to reveal the effect of dr...

    Authors: Fabienne Boeni, Esther Spinatsch, Katja Suter, Kurt E Hersberger and Isabelle Arnet

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:29

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Optimal selection of blood donors is of paramount importance in ensuring the safety of blood products. The current selection process is concerned principally with the safety of the blood donor and the safety o...

    Authors: Michaël Chassé, Shane W English, Lauralyn McIntyre, Greg Knoll, Nadine Shehata, Alan Forster, Kumanan Wilson, Carl van Walraven, Alan Tinmouth and Dean A Fergusson

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:28

    Content type: Protocol

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  34. The non-availability of clinical trial results contributes to publication bias, diminishing the validity of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Although clinical trial registries have been established to red...

    Authors: Noory Y Kim, Shrikant I Bangdiwala, Kylie Thaler and Gerald Gartlehner

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:27

    Content type: Methodology

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  35. The period following discharge from a pediatric emergency department (ED) can be a time of significant vulnerability for caregivers who provide ongoing care to their child when they return home. Discharge comm...

    Authors: Janet A Curran, Andrea Murphy, Mandi Newton, Roger Zemek, Lisa Hartling, Amy Plint, Jill Chorney, Shannon MacPhee, Samuel G Campbell, Mona Jabbour, Darlene Boliver, David Petrie, Randy Colwell, Kate MacWilliams and Alicia Nolan

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:26

    Content type: Protocol

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  36. The most important symptom as well as one of the major diagnostic criteria for eczema is itch. Although oral antihistamines continue to be prescribed for people with eczema, it is unclear if they are effective...

    Authors: Esther J van Zuuren, Christian J Apfelbacher, Zbys Fedorowicz, Aldrin Jupiter, Uwe Matterne and Elke Weisshaar

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:25

    Content type: Research

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  37. Cardiogenic shock is the leading cause of death in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Despite significant advancements in health technology and research, hospital mortality approaches 50%. The intra-ao...

    Authors: Sultan Altayyar, Bram Rochwerg, Sami Alnasser, Awad Al-omari, Bandar Baw, Alison Fox-Robichaud and Waleed Alhazzani

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:24

    Content type: Protocol

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  38. In pregnancies complicated by early-onset extreme fetal growth restriction, there is a high risk of preterm birth and an overall dismal fetal prognosis. Sildenafil has been suggested to improve this prognosis....

    Authors: Wessel Ganzevoort, Zarko Alfirevic, Peter von Dadelszen, Louise Kenny, Aris Papageorghiou, Aleid van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Christian Gluud, Ben Willem Mol and Philip N Baker

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:23

    Content type: Protocol

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  39. To date no network meta-analysis (NMA) has accounted for baseline variations in viral load when assessing the relative efficacy of interventions for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We undertook baseline-adjusted an...

    Authors: Stuart Mealing, Isabella Ghement, Neil Hawkins, David A Scott, Benedicte Lescrauwaet, Maureen Watt, Mark Thursz, Pietro Lampertico, Lorenzo Mantovani, Edith Morais, Bruno Bregman and Michel Cucherat

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:21

    Content type: Research

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  40. Resilience has been defined as the ability of individuals to manage and adapt to stress and life challenges. Training programs that develop and/or enhance resilience may have efficacy in improving health, well...

    Authors: Aaron L Leppin, Michael R Gionfriddo, Amit Sood, Victor M Montori, Patricia J Erwin, Claudia Zeballos-Palacios, Pavithra R Bora, Megan M Dulohery, Juan Pablo Brito, Kasey R Boehmer and Jon C Tilburt

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:20

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  41. Pediatric injury is highly prevalent and has significant impact both physically and emotionally. The majority of pediatric injuries are treated in emergency departments (EDs), where treatment of physical injur...

    Authors: Jeffrey Odenbach, Amanda Newton, Rebecca Gokiert, Cathy Falconer, Craig Courchesne, Sandra Campbell and Sarah J Curtis

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:19

    Content type: Protocol

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  42. Identifying patients with increased risk of suicidal behaviors is a constant challenge and concern for clinicians caring for patients with psychiatric conditions. We conducted a systematic review to assess the...

    Authors: Shaista Malik, Amrit Kanwar, Leslie A Sim, Larry J Prokop, Zhen Wang, Khalid Benkhadra and Mohammad Hassan Murad

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:18

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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