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  1. The toxic heavy metal lead continues to be a leading environmental risk factor, with the number of attributable deaths having doubled between 1990 and 2010. Although major sources of lead exposure, in particul...

    Authors: Lisa Maria Pfadenhauer, Jacob Burns, Anke Rohwer and Eva Annette Rehfuess

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:36

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  2. The burden of mental health and psychosocial problems in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. An increasing number of randomized stu...

    Authors: Marianna Purgato, Alden L Gross, Mark JD Jordans, Joop TVM de Jong, Corrado Barbui and Wietse Tol

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:34

    Content type: Protocol

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  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a significant public health burden. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a method of supported breathing used as standard care for acutely unwell patients in h...

    Authors: Chirag Dave, Alice Turner, Janine Dretzke, Sue Bayliss, Deirdre O’Brien, Sue Jowett and David Moore

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:32

    Content type: Protocol

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  4. Outbreaks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been reported in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in North America, Europe and Asia. Transmission is believed to be the result of exposure to blo...

    Authors: Holly Hagan, Joshua Neurer, Ashly E Jordan, Don C Des Jarlais, Jennifer Wu, Kirk Dombrowski, Bilal Khan, Ronald Scott Braithwaite and Jason Kessler

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:31

    Content type: Protocol

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  5. Early diagnosis and treatment of cancer is thought to be important for improving survival. Longer time between the onset of cancer symptoms and receipt of treatment may help explain the poorer survival of UK c...

    Authors: Lynne F Forrest, Sarah Sowden, Greg Rubin, Martin White and Jean Adams

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:30

    Content type: Protocol

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  6. This was a systematic review of the literature in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Evidence mapping was used to reveal the effect of dr...

    Authors: Fabienne Boeni, Esther Spinatsch, Katja Suter, Kurt E Hersberger and Isabelle Arnet

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:29

    Content type: Research

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  7. Optimal selection of blood donors is of paramount importance in ensuring the safety of blood products. The current selection process is concerned principally with the safety of the blood donor and the safety o...

    Authors: Michaël Chassé, Shane W English, Lauralyn McIntyre, Greg Knoll, Nadine Shehata, Alan Forster, Kumanan Wilson, Carl van Walraven, Alan Tinmouth and Dean A Fergusson

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:28

    Content type: Protocol

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  8. The non-availability of clinical trial results contributes to publication bias, diminishing the validity of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Although clinical trial registries have been established to red...

    Authors: Noory Y Kim, Shrikant I Bangdiwala, Kylie Thaler and Gerald Gartlehner

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:27

    Content type: Methodology

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  9. The period following discharge from a pediatric emergency department (ED) can be a time of significant vulnerability for caregivers who provide ongoing care to their child when they return home. Discharge comm...

    Authors: Janet A Curran, Andrea Murphy, Mandi Newton, Roger Zemek, Lisa Hartling, Amy Plint, Jill Chorney, Shannon MacPhee, Samuel G Campbell, Mona Jabbour, Darlene Boliver, David Petrie, Randy Colwell, Kate MacWilliams and Alicia Nolan

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:26

    Content type: Protocol

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  10. The most important symptom as well as one of the major diagnostic criteria for eczema is itch. Although oral antihistamines continue to be prescribed for people with eczema, it is unclear if they are effective...

    Authors: Esther J van Zuuren, Christian J Apfelbacher, Zbys Fedorowicz, Aldrin Jupiter, Uwe Matterne and Elke Weisshaar

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:25

    Content type: Research

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  11. Cardiogenic shock is the leading cause of death in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Despite significant advancements in health technology and research, hospital mortality approaches 50%. The intra-ao...

    Authors: Sultan Altayyar, Bram Rochwerg, Sami Alnasser, Awad Al-omari, Bandar Baw, Alison Fox-Robichaud and Waleed Alhazzani

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:24

    Content type: Protocol

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  12. In pregnancies complicated by early-onset extreme fetal growth restriction, there is a high risk of preterm birth and an overall dismal fetal prognosis. Sildenafil has been suggested to improve this prognosis....

    Authors: Wessel Ganzevoort, Zarko Alfirevic, Peter von Dadelszen, Louise Kenny, Aris Papageorghiou, Aleid van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Christian Gluud, Ben Willem Mol and Philip N Baker

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:23

    Content type: Protocol

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  13. To date no network meta-analysis (NMA) has accounted for baseline variations in viral load when assessing the relative efficacy of interventions for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We undertook baseline-adjusted an...

    Authors: Stuart Mealing, Isabella Ghement, Neil Hawkins, David A Scott, Benedicte Lescrauwaet, Maureen Watt, Mark Thursz, Pietro Lampertico, Lorenzo Mantovani, Edith Morais, Bruno Bregman and Michel Cucherat

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:21

    Content type: Research

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  14. Resilience has been defined as the ability of individuals to manage and adapt to stress and life challenges. Training programs that develop and/or enhance resilience may have efficacy in improving health, well...

    Authors: Aaron L Leppin, Michael R Gionfriddo, Amit Sood, Victor M Montori, Patricia J Erwin, Claudia Zeballos-Palacios, Pavithra R Bora, Megan M Dulohery, Juan Pablo Brito, Kasey R Boehmer and Jon C Tilburt

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:20

    Content type: Protocol

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  15. Pediatric injury is highly prevalent and has significant impact both physically and emotionally. The majority of pediatric injuries are treated in emergency departments (EDs), where treatment of physical injur...

    Authors: Jeffrey Odenbach, Amanda Newton, Rebecca Gokiert, Cathy Falconer, Craig Courchesne, Sandra Campbell and Sarah J Curtis

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:19

    Content type: Protocol

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  16. Identifying patients with increased risk of suicidal behaviors is a constant challenge and concern for clinicians caring for patients with psychiatric conditions. We conducted a systematic review to assess the...

    Authors: Shaista Malik, Amrit Kanwar, Leslie A Sim, Larry J Prokop, Zhen Wang, Khalid Benkhadra and Mohammad Hassan Murad

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:18

    Content type: Research

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  17. Eating out of the home has been associated with higher intakes of energy and fat and lower micronutrient intakes, as well as the development of obesity. Out-of-home food outlets (OHFOs) and the foods obtained ...

    Authors: Frances C Hillier-Brown, Helen J Moore, Amelia A Lake, Ashley J Adamson, Martin White, Jean Adams, Vera Araujo-Soares, Charles Abraham and Carolyn D Summerbell

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:17

    Content type: Protocol

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  18. Patients undergoing renal transplant procedures require multi-agent immunosuppressive regimens both short term (induction phase) and long term (maintenance phase) to minimize the risk of organ rejection. There...

    Authors: Brian Hutton, Lawrence Joseph, Fatemeh Yazdi, Jennifer Tetzlaff, Mona Hersi, Madzouka Kokolo, Nicolas Fergusson, Alexandria Bennett, Chieny Buenaventura, Dean Fergusson, Andrea Tricco, Sharon Strauss, David Moher and Greg Knoll

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:16

    Content type: Protocol

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  19. Bariatric surgery is the only weight-loss treatment available that results in both sustained weight loss and improvements of obesity-related comorbidities. Individuals who meet the eligibility criteria for bar...

    Authors: Timothy D Jackson, Rujun Zhang, Dresden Glockler, Jason Pennington, Jacinta I Reddigan, Ori D Rotstein, Janet Smylie, Laure Perrier and Lesley Gotlib Conn

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:15

    Content type: Protocol

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  20. Studies suggest that expectations powerfully shape clinical outcomes. For subjective outcomes in adequately blinded trials, health improvements are substantial and largely explained by non-specific factors.

    Authors: Frederik Feys, Geertruida E Bekkering, Kavita Singh and Dirk Devroey

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:14

    Content type: Research

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  21. Systematic reviews are a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine but are useful only if up-to-date. Methods for detecting signals of when a systematic review needs updating have face validity, but no proposed m...

    Authors: Paul G Shekelle, Aneesa Motala, Breanne Johnsen and Sydne J Newberry

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:13

    Content type: Research

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Systematic Reviews 2014 3:22

  22. The aims of antenatal education contain both outcomes related to pregnancy, birth and parenthood. Both content and methods of antenatal education have changed over time without evidence of effects on relevant ...

    Authors: Carina Sjöberg Brixval, Solveig Forberg Axelsen, Stig Krøger Andersen, Pernille Due and Vibeke Koushede

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:12

    Content type: Protocol

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  23. Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is the underlying infectious cause of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and other proliferative diseases; that is, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman disease. In regions with h...

    Authors: Eliane Rohner, Natascha Wyss, Sven Trelle, Sam M Mbulaiteye, Matthias Egger, Urban Novak, Marcel Zwahlen and Julia Bohlius

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:11

    Content type: Protocol

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  24. Exercise programmes are frequently advocated for the management of musculoskeletal disorders; however, adherence is an important pre-requisite for their success. The assessment of exercise adherence requires t...

    Authors: Melanie A Holden, Kirstie L Haywood, Tanzila A Potia, Melanie Gee and Sionnadh McLean

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:10

    Content type: Protocol

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  25. Over 850 million people worldwide and 200 million adults in Sub-Saharan Africa suffer from malnutrition. Countries most affected by HIV are also stricken by elevated rates of food insecurity and malnutrition. ...

    Authors: Maryline Sicotte, Étienne V Langlois, Joséphine Aho, Daniela Ziegler and Maria Victoria Zunzunegui

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:9

    Content type: Protocol

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  26. A peer-reviewed journal would not survive without the generous time and insightful comments of the reviewers, whose efforts often go unrecognized. Systematic Reviews has been blessed by the support of highly-qual...

    Authors: Daniel Shanahan

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:6

    Content type: Reviewer acknowledgement

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  27. Advances in surgical technique, prosthetic heart valve design, and anticoagulation have contributed to an overall improvement in morbidity and mortality in women with heart valve prostheses as well as increase...

    Authors: Claire M Lawley, Samantha J Lain, Charles S Algert, Jane B Ford, Gemma A Figtree and Christine L Roberts

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:8

    Content type: Protocol

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  28. Globally, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) is rising, posing a challenge to its control and appropriate management. Text messaging has become the most common mode of communication among a...

    Authors: Carole Lunny, Darlene Taylor, Jasmina Memetovic, Orion Wärje, Richard Lester, Tom Wong, Kendall Ho, Mark Gilbert and Gina Ogilvie

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:7

    Content type: Protocol

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  29. Depression is common in people with long term conditions (LTCs) and is associated with worse medical outcomes. Understanding the mechanisms underpinning this relationship could help predict who is at increased...

    Authors: Leanne Trick, Edward Watkins and Chris Dickens

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:5

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  30. Improving and sustaining the quality of care in hospitals is an intractable and persistent challenge. The patients’ experience of the quality of hospital care can provide insightful feedback to enable clinical...

    Authors: Michelle Beattie, William Lauder, Iain Atherton and Douglas J Murphy

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:4

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  31. Although health care providers utilize classically described signs and symptoms to diagnose tension pneumothorax, available literature sources differ in their descriptions of its clinical manifestations. Moreo...

    Authors: Derek J Roberts, Simon Leigh-Smith, Peter D Faris, Chad G Ball, Helen Lee Robertson, Christopher Blackmore, Elijah Dixon, Andrew W Kirkpatrick, John B Kortbeek and Henry Thomas Stelfox

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:3

    Content type: Protocol

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  32. Almost all patients under general anesthesia for surgery need mechanical ventilation. The harmful effects of short-term intra-operative ventilation on pulmonary integrity are increasingly recognized. Recent in...

    Authors: Ary Serpa Neto, Sabrine NT Hemmes, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Paolo Pelosi and Marcus J Schultz

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:2

    Content type: Protocol

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  33. Consensus has not been reached on safe alcohol consumption recommendations during pregnancy. The National Institutes for Care and Health Excellence (NICE) in the UK suggest that one to two drinks not more than...

    Authors: Linda M O’Keeffe, Richard A Greene and Patricia M Kearney

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:1

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Individuals with major psychotic and/or affective disorders are at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome due to lifestyle- and treatment-related factors. Numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacolog...

    Authors: Cynthia Nover and Sarah S Jackson

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:116

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. The usefulness of Google Scholar (GS) as a bibliographic database for biomedical systematic review (SR) searching is a subject of current interest and debate in research circles. Recent research has suggested ...

    Authors: Wichor M Bramer, Dean Giustini, Bianca MR Kramer and PF Anderson

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:115

    Content type: Methodology

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  36. Previous studies have been limited in reporting the association between chocolate consumption, measured by interviewer-administered questionnaire or serum theobromine, a biomarker for cocoa, and risk of preecl...

    Authors: Jaime Andres Mogollon, Catherine Boivin, Kadhel Philippe, Stéphane Turcotte, Simone Lemieux, Claudine Blanchet, Emmanuel Bujold and Sylvie Dodin

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:114

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  37. Clinicians, providers and guideline panels use absolute effects to weigh the advantages and downsides of treatment alternatives. Relative measures have the potential to mislead readers. However, little is know...

    Authors: Pablo Alonso-Coello, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Ignacio Neumann, Elie A Akl, Xin Sun, Bradley C Johnston, Matthias Briel, Jason W Busse, Demián Glujovsky, Carlos E Granados, Alfonso Iorio, Affan Irfan, Laura M García, Reem A Mustafa, Anggie Ramirez-Morera…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:113

    Content type: Protocol

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Systematic Reviews 2014 3:76

  38. Reports from Africa have suggested that pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a less important cause of morbidity than in the developed world. However, more recent studies have shown high seroprevalence rates of P. jir...

    Authors: Sean Wasserman, Mark E Engel and Marc Mendelson

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:112

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  39. PROSPERO is an international database of prospectively registered systematic reviews in health and social care. Between July 2012 and June 2013, 1,106 registrations were added, bringing the total since launch ...

    Authors: Alison Booth

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:111

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  40. Although it is often performed in clinical practice, the diagnostic value of a screening physical examination to detect maltreatment in children without prior suspicion has not been reviewed. This article aims...

    Authors: Eva MM Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Arianne H Teeuw, Tessa Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Arnold G E Leenders and Johanna H van der Lee

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:109

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Permanent childhood hearing loss affects 1 to 3 per 1000 children and frequently disrupts typical spoken language acquisition. Early identification of hearing loss through universal newborn hearing screening a...

    Authors: Elizabeth M Fitzpatrick, Adrienne Stevens, Chantelle Garritty and David Moher

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:108

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  42. There are both theoretical and empirical reasons to believe that design and execution factors are associated with bias in controlled trials. Statistically significant moderator effects, such as the effect of t...

    Authors: Susanne Hempel, Jeremy NV Miles, Marika J Booth, Zhen Wang, Sally C Morton and Paul G Shekelle

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:107

    Content type: Methodology

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  43. The Statistical Methods Group has played a pivotal role in The Cochrane Collaboration over the past 20 years. The Statistical Methods Group has determined the direction of statistical methods used within Cochr...

    Authors: Joanne E McKenzie, Georgia Salanti, Steff C Lewis and Douglas G Altman

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:80

    Content type: Commentary

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  44. Virtually all low- and middle-income countries are dependent on the World Health Organization’s Expanded Program on Immunization for delivery of vaccines to children. The Expanded Program on Immunization deliv...

    Authors: Shingai Machingaidze, Eva Rehfuess, Rüdiger von Kries, Gregory D Hussey and Charles S Wiysonge

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:106

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  45. Depression is common in people with chronic physical illness and is associated with worse medical outcomes. Cognitive behavioural therapy and problem-solving improve depression, although usually have small to ...

    Authors: Sarah Harris, Paul Farrand and Chris Dickens

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:105

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  46. Systematic reviews (SRs) can become outdated as new evidence emerges over time. Organizations that produce SRs need a surveillance method to determine when reviews are likely to require updating. This report d...

    Authors: Nadera Ahmadzai, Sydne J Newberry, Margaret A Maglione, Alexander Tsertsvadze, Mohammed T Ansari, Susanne Hempel, Aneesa Motala, Sophia Tsouros, Jennifer J Schneider Chafen, Roberta Shanman, David Moher and Paul G Shekelle

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:104

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  47. Dapagliflozin is a first-in-class oral sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. It is often used in combination with conventional anti-diabetic drugs such as metformin, glimepiride, and insulin in tr...

    Authors: Yu-nan Sun, Yi Zhou, Xi Chen, Wen-si Che and Siu-wai Leung

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:103

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

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