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  1. Steroids are often combined with local anesthetic (LA) and injected to reduce pain associated with various chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) complaints. The biological rationale behind injection of a steroid solu...

    Authors: Harsha Shanthanna, Jason W. Busse, Lehana Thabane, James Paul, Rachel Couban, Harman Choudhary, Alka Kaushal, Erica Suzumura, Isabel Kim and Prathiba Harsha

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:18

    Content type: Protocol

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  2. The association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and poor health is well documented in the existing literature. Nonetheless, evidence on the relationship between SES and gastrointestinal (GI) infections ...

    Authors: Tanith C. Rose, Natalie Adams, David C. Taylor-Robinson, Benjamin Barr, Jeremy Hawker, Sarah O’Brien, Mara Violato and Margaret Whitehead

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:13

    Content type: Protocol

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  3. Elevated levels of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm have been reported for sportspeople and supporters compared to non-sporting populations. Limited systematic reviews have been conducted to ...

    Authors: Melanie Kingsland, John H. Wiggers, Khanrin P. Vashum, Rebecca K. Hodder and Luke Wolfenden

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:12

    Content type: Research

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  4. Acute diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis (AD/AGE) are common among children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and high-income countries (HIC). Supportive therapy including maintaining feeding, prevent...

    Authors: Ivan D. Florez, Reem Al-Khalifah, Javier M. Sierra, Claudia M. Granados, Juan J. Yepes-Nuñez, Carlos Cuello-Garcia, Giordano Perez-Gaxiola, Adriana M. Zea, Gilma N. Hernandez, Areti-Angeliki Veroniki, Gordon H. Guyatt and Lehana Thabane

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:14

    Content type: Protocol

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  5. Systematic reviews seek to bring together research evidence to answer the question for the review. The reviewers usually wish to compare, contrast and, if appropriate, combine the findings of the existing rese...

    Authors: Mike Clarke and Paula R. Williamson

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:11

    Content type: Commentary

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  6. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating condition with significant long-term mortality and morbidity. Despite current need for objective indicators to guide initial decision-making, few reliable acute ph...

    Authors: Hourmazd Haghbayan, Amélie Boutin, Mathieu Laflamme, François Lauzier, Michèle Shemilt, Lynne Moore, Ryan Zarychanski, Dean Fergusson and Alexis F. Turgeon

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:10

    Content type: Protocol

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  7. Overweight and obesity in children and adults is a major public health concern. Emerging evidence suggests dietary sodium intake may be associated with obesity. This systematic review and meta-analysis will ai...

    Authors: Carley A. Grimes, Dieuwerke P. Bolhuis, Feng J. He and Caryl A. Nowson

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:7

    Content type: Protocol

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  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis has been recognized as an important tool to determine the efficiency of healthcare interventions and services. There is a need for evaluating the reporting of methods and results of...

    Authors: Ferrán Catalá-López, Manuel Ridao, Adolfo Alonso-Arroyo, Anna García-Altés, Chris Cameron, Diana González-Bermejo, Rafael Aleixandre-Benavent, Enrique Bernal-Delgado, Salvador Peiró, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos and Brian Hutton

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:6

    Content type: Research

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  9. Worldwide, the prevalences of diabetes and dementia are both increasing, particularly in older people. Rates of diabetes in people with dementia are between 13 and 20 %. Diabetes management and diabetic self-c...

    Authors: Frances Bunn, Claire Goodman, Jo Rycroft Malone, Peter Reece Jones, Chris Burton, Greta Rait, Daksha Trivedi, Antony Bayer and Alan Sinclair

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:5

    Content type: Protocol

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  10. Overviews of systematic reviews attempt to systematically retrieve and summarise the results of multiple systematic reviews into a single document. Methods for conducting, interpreting and reporting overviews ...

    Authors: Carole Lunny, Sue E. Brennan, Steve McDonald and Joanne E. McKenzie

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:4

    Content type: Protocol

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  11. Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD) have been associated with poor health outcomes, including diminished quality and length of life. Standard management for CKD-MBD includes phosphate-r...

    Authors: Nigar Sekercioglu, Jason W. Busse, Reem A. Mustafa, Gordon H. Guyatt and Lehana Thabane

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:2

    Content type: Protocol

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  12. Research with a focus on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian’s (hereafter referred to as Indigenous1) needs is crucial to ensure culturally appropriate evidence-based strategies are developed to impr...

    Authors: Sara Farnbach, Anne-Marie Eades and Maree Lisa Hackett

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:189

    Content type: Protocol

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  13. Up to 90 % of people with scleroderma have gastrointestinal (GI) problems such as constipation, bloating, diarrhea, and malabsorption. These problems significantly impair quality of life. Our objective was to ...

    Authors: Brian Younho Hong, Raymond Giang, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Maggie Larche and Lehana Thabane

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:188

    Content type: Research

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  14. Suicidal behaviour is a complex phenomenon with a multitude of risk factors. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein crucial to nervous system function, may be involved in suicide risk. The objecti...

    Authors: Rebecca B. Eisen, Stefan Perera, Laura Banfield, Rebecca Anglin, Luciano Minuzzi and Zainab Samaan

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:187

    Content type: Research

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  15. The mental health of children and adolescents is a key area of health concern internationally. Previous empirical studies suggest that resilience may act as a protective mechanism towards the development of me...

    Authors: Julia Dray, Jenny Bowman, Luke Wolfenden, Elizabeth Campbell, Megan Freund, Rebecca Hodder and John Wiggers

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:186

    Content type: Protocol

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  16. The long-term management of chronic diseases requires adoption of complex dietary recommendations, which can be facilitated by regular coaching to support sustained behaviour change. Telehealth interventions c...

    Authors: Jaimon T. Kelly, Dianne P. Reidlinger, Tammy C. Hoffmann and Katrina L. Campbell

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:185

    Content type: Protocol

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  17. Tobacco and alcohol are recognised as the major risk factors for both oral cavity (mouth) and oropharyngeal (throat) cancers, with increasing acceptance of the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the aetiolo...

    Authors: Sweta Mathur, David I. Conway, Heather Worlledge-Andrew, Lorna M.D. Macpherson and Alastair J. Ross

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:184

    Content type: Protocol

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  18. Testicular cancer is primarily treated with the surgical removal of the affected testis. About 50 % of testicular cancer patients present with a stage I seminoma. If no chemo- or radiotherapy as adjuvant treat...

    Authors: Frank Kunath, Annabel Spek, Katrin Jensen, Friedemann Zengerling and Stefanie Schmidt

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:182

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  19. Improving health-care outcomes for people living with dementia when they are admitted to hospital is a policy priority. Dementia friendly interventions in health care promote inclusion of patients and carers i...

    Authors: Melanie Handley, Frances Bunn and Claire Goodman

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:180

    Content type: Protocol

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  20. Whilst nutrition is vital to survival in health, the precise role of nutrition during critical illness is controversial. More specifically, the exact amount of energy that is required during critical illness t...

    Authors: Emma J. Ridley, Andrew R. Davies, Carol Hodgson, Adam Deane, Michael Bailey and D. James Cooper

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:179

    Content type: Protocol

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  21. A physically active lifestyle plays a preventative role in the development of various chronic diseases and mental health conditions. Unfortunately, few adults achieve the minimum amount of physical activity an...

    Authors: Christina C. Loitz, Robert J. Potter, Jessica L. Walker, Nicole C. McLeod and Nora J. Johnston

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:178

    Content type: Protocol

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  22. The risk of developing cardiovascular disease is directly correlated to one’s resting blood pressure (BP), age, and biological sex. Resting BP can be reduced using handgrip exercise training, but the impact of...

    Authors: Danielle C. Bentley, Cindy H. Nguyen and Scott G. Thomas

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:176

    Content type: Protocol

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  23. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder. While abdominal pain is a dominant symptom of IBS, many sufferers also report widespread hypersensitivity and present with other...

    Authors: Rosemary J. Chakiath, Philip J. Siddall, John E. Kellow, Julia M. Hush, Mike P. Jones, Anna Marcuzzi and Paul J. Wrigley

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:175

    Content type: Protocol

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  24. Fatigue is a common symptom in cancer patients that can persist beyond the curative treatment phase. Some evidence has been reported for interventions for fatigue during active treatment. However, to date, the...

    Authors: Teresa Corbett, Declan Devane, Jane C. Walsh, AnnMarie Groarke and Brian E. McGuire

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:174

    Content type: Protocol

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  25. Helping people make well-informed decisions about dysvascular partial foot amputation is becoming increasingly important as improvements in diabetes care and vascular surgery make more distal amputations incre...

    Authors: Michael P Dillon, Stefania Fatone and Matthew Quigley

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:173

    Content type: Protocol

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Systematic Reviews 2016 5:1

  26. The recent Ebola epidemic in western Africa developed into an acute public health emergency of unprecedented level in modern times. The treatment provided in most cases has been limited to supportive care, as ...

    Authors: Hussein Sweiti, Obinna Ekwunife, Thomas Jaschinski and Stefan K. Lhachimi

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:171

    Content type: Protocol

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  27. Probiotics may prevent antibiotic-associated and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (AAD/CDAD). Many spinal cord injury centre (SCIC) practitioners consider probiotics generically and may not realise that...

    Authors: Samford Wong, Ali Jamous, Jean O’Driscoll, Ravi Sekhar, Mofid Saif, Steve O’Driscoll, Sarah Lewis, Eamonn McKeown and Shashi P. Hirani

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:170

    Content type: Protocol

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  28. The objective of the study is to conduct a systematic review to compare the effects of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) versus standard-dose chemoth...

    Authors: Caroline Main, Jayne S. Wilson, Simon P. Stevens, Aimee E. Houlton, Martin English, Pamela R. Kearns, Bob Phillips, Barry Pizer, Sophie Wilne and Keith Wheatley

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:168

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  29. Transplantation improves survival and the quality of life of patients with end-stage organ failure. Infection, due to surgical issues, host factors such as diabetes, immunosuppression, and hypogammaglobulinemi...

    Authors: Juthaporn Cowan, Brian Hutton, Nicholas Fergusson, Alexandria Bennett, Jason Tay, D. William Cameron and Greg A. Knoll

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:167

    Content type: Protocol

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  30. Several options are available for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), but disease control remains elusive for many patients. Recently, literature has emerged describing anti-IgE monoclonal antibody ...

    Authors: Chris J. Hong, Adrian C. Tsang, Jason G. Quinn, James P. Bonaparte, Adrienne Stevens and Shaun J. Kilty

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:166

    Content type: Research

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  31. Head injury represents an extremely common presentation to emergency departments (ED), but not all patients present immediately after injury. There is evidence that clinical deterioration following head injury...

    Authors: Carl Marincowitz, Christopher M. Smith and William Townend

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:165

    Content type: Research

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  32. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including myocardial infarction, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease and strokes, are highly prevalent conditions and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Ca...

    Authors: Neil Heron, Frank Kee, Michael Donnelly, Mark A. Tully and Margaret E. Cupples

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:164

    Content type: Protocol

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  33. Many randomised trials have count outcomes, such as the number of falls or the number of asthma exacerbations. These outcomes have been treated as counts, continuous outcomes or dichotomised and analysed using...

    Authors: Peter Herbison, M. Clare Robertson and Joanne E. McKenzie

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:163

    Content type: Research

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  34. Fluid administration to critically ill patients remains the subject of considerable controversy. While intravenous fluid given for resuscitation may be life-saving, a positive fluid balance over time is associ...

    Authors: Jonathan A. Silversides, Andrew J. Ferguson, Daniel F. McAuley, Bronagh Blackwood, John C. Marshall and Eddy Fan

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:162

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  35. Non-union of fractured bone is a major cause of morbidity in the orthopaedic population. Despite this, optimal management of non-union is still unclear and remains a significant clinical challenge. Research co...

    Authors: Sarah K. Stewart, Philippa M. Bennett, Sarah A. Stapley, Janine Dretzke, Danai Bem and Jowan G. Penn-Barwell

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:161

    Content type: Protocol

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  36. Healthcare consumers, researchers, patients and policy makers increasingly use systematic reviews (SRs) to aid their decision-making process. However, the conduct of SRs can be a time-consuming and resource-in...

    Authors: Alexander Tsertsvadze, Yen-Fu Chen, David Moher, Paul Sutcliffe and Noel McCarthy

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:160

    Content type: Commentary

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  37. Landmark studies in adult-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) populations indicate that improved glycaemic control through use of intensive insulin therapy is strongly associated with reduced risk for the development ...

    Authors: Veena Mazarello Paes, Dimitrios Charalampopoulos, Amal R. Khanolkar, David Taylor-Robinson, Russell Viner, Julie Edge, Terence Stephenson and Rakesh Amin

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:159

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  38. The matching of critical care service supply with demand is fundamental for the efficient delivery of advanced life support to patients in urgent need. Mismatch in this supply/demand relationship contributes t...

    Authors: S. Abolfazi Soltani, Armann Ingolfsson, David A. Zygun, Henry T. Stelfox, Lisa Hartling, Robin Featherstone, Dawn Opgenorth and Sean M. Bagshaw

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:158

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  39. Smoking cessation before surgery reduces postoperative complications, and the benefit is positively associated with the duration of being abstinent before a surgical procedure. A key issue in providing preoper...

    Authors: Fujian Song, Tracey J. Brown, Annie Blyth, Vivienne Maskrey, Iain McNamara and Simon Donell

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:157

    Content type: Research

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  40. Nebulised dornase alfa is used off-label in critically ill patients. We aimed to assess the benefits and harms of nebulised dornase alfa versus placebo, no prophylaxis, or hypertonic saline on patient-importan...

    Authors: Casper Claudius, Anders Perner and Morten Hylander Møller

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:153

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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