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  1. Learning activities are fundamental for the development of expertise in physiotherapy practice. Continuing professional development (CPD) encompasses formal and informal learning activities undertaken by physi...

    Authors: Edmund Leahy, Lucy Chipchase and Felicity Blackstock
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:83
  2. Cochrane primarily aims to systematically review trials of effectiveness that are important to inform clinical decisions. Editorial groups support authors to achieve high-quality reviews and prioritise review ...

    Authors: Jasmin Alloo, Sanya Vallath, Chris Del Mar, Matt Carter, Sarah Thorning and Justin Clark
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:82
  3. Spitz nevi are uncommon melanocytic neoplasms found in children. Historically, the diagnosis and management of these tumors has lacked consensus among oncologists, pathologists, plastic surgeons, and dermatolo...

    Authors: Jean Abboud, Michael Stein, Michele Ramien and Claudia Malic
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:81
  4. Hemorrhage is a major cause of early mortality following a traumatic injury. The progression and consequences of significant blood loss occur quickly as death from hemorrhagic shock or exsanguination often occ...

    Authors: Alexandre Tran, Maher Matar, Ewout W. Steyerberg, Jacinthe Lampron, Monica Taljaard and Christian Vaillancourt
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:80
  5. When randomized trials have addressed multiple interventions for the same health problem, network meta-analyses (NMAs) permit researchers to statistically pool data from individual studies including evidence f...

    Authors: L. Mbuagbaw, B. Rochwerg, R. Jaeschke, D. Heels-Andsell, W. Alhazzani, L. Thabane and Gordon H. Guyatt
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:79
  6. Previous studies investigating the mental health of migrants have shown mixed results. The increased availability of register data has led to a growing number of register-based studies in this research area. T...

    Authors: Kishan Patel, Anne Kouvonen, Ciara Close, Ari Väänänen, Dermot O’Reilly and Michael Donnelly
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:78
  7. Alcohol dependence is common and serious cause of social and physical harm. However, the optimal management of those with moderate and severe alcohol dependence in primary and community care after detoxificati...

    Authors: Hung-Yuan Cheng, Roy G. Elbers, Julian P. T. Higgins, Abigail Taylor, Georgina J. MacArthur, Luke McGuinness, Sarah Dawson, José A. López-López, Sean Cowlishaw, Matthew Hickman and David Kessler
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:77
  8. Alcohol use is the behaviour that has the most significant impact on the mortality and morbidity of young people, and binge drinking is becoming the norm among this population. The burden of disease of binge d...

    Authors: Jennifer Hasselgård-Rowe, Barbara Broers and Dagmar M. Haller
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:76
  9. Women in high resource nations are increasingly delaying childbearing until their thirties. Delayed childbearing poses challenges for the spacing of a woman’s pregnancies. Inter-pregnancy intervals <12 months ...

    Authors: Mani Asgharpour, Sofia Villarreal, Laura Schummers, Jennifer Hutcheon, Dorothy Shaw and Wendy V. Norman
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:75
  10. Overviews of systematic reviews (overviews) attempt to systematically retrieve and summarize the results of multiple systematic reviews (SRs) for a given condition or public health problem. Two prior descripti...

    Authors: Dawid Pieper, Michelle Pollock, Ricardo M. Fernandes, Roland Brian Büchter and Lisa Hartling
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:73
  11. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is becoming popular with policy makers and commissioners globally, with a key aim of expanding access through reducing barriers to testing for individuals at risk of HIV infection. HIV...

    Authors: T. Charles Witzel, Peter Weatherburn, Fiona M. Burns, Cheryl C. Johnson, Carmen Figueroa and Alison J. Rodger
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:72
  12. Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia of the heart with a prevalence of approximately 2% in the western world. Atrial flutter, another arrhythmia, occurs less often with an incidence of approximate...

    Authors: Naqash J. Sethi, Sanam Safi, Joshua Feinberg, Emil E. Nielsen, Christian Gluud and Janus C. Jakobsen
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:71
  13. The majority of a child’s language development occurs in the first 5 years of life when brain development is most rapid. There are significant long-term benefits to supporting all children’s language and liter...

    Authors: Laureen J. McIntyre, Laurie-ann M. Hellsten, Julia Bidonde, Catherine Boden and Carolyn Doi
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:70
  14. The objective of this study will be to synthesize the epidemiological evidence and evaluate the validity of the associations between central nervous system disorders and the risk of developing or dying from ca...

    Authors: Ferrán Catalá-López, Brian Hutton, Jane A. Driver, Matthew J. Page, Manuel Ridao, José M. Valderas, Adolfo Alonso-Arroyo, Jaume Forés-Martos, Salvador Martínez, Ricard Gènova-Maleras, Diego Macías-Saint-Gerons, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Eduard Vieta, Alfonso Valencia and Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:69
  15. Evidence suggests a relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although the high burden of COPD and the HIV disease is clearly demonstra...

    Authors: Jean Joel R. Bigna, Angeladine Malaha Kenne and Serra Lem Asangbeh
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:68
  16. Failure to promptly identify deterioration in hospitalised patients is associated with delayed admission to intensive care units (ICUs) and poor outcomes. Existing vital sign-based Early Warning Score (EWS) al...

    Authors: James Malycha, Tim Bonnici, Katarina Sebekova, Tatjana Petrinic, Duncan Young and Peter Watkinson
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:67
  17. Cancer survivors face a range of negative physical and psychological effects that can be mitigated by participating in physical activity. Despite this, most do not meet recommended levels. Health care provider...

    Authors: Jennifer Brunet, Amanda Wurz, Connor O’Rielly, Doris Howell, Mathieu Bélanger and Jonathan Sussman
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:66
  18. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is an integrated model of care involving a geriatrician and an interdisciplinary team and can prioritize and manage complex health needs of older adults with multimorbi...

    Authors: Charlene Soobiah, Caitlin Daly, Erik Blondal, Joycelyne Ewusie, Joanne Ho, Meghan J. Elliott, Rossini Yue, Jayna Holroyd-Leduc, Barbara Liu, Sharon Marr, Jenny Basran, Andrea C. Tricco, Jemila Hamid and Sharon E. Straus
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:65
  19. Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is a widely used manual treatment, but many reviews exist with conflicting conclusions about the safety of SMT. We performed an overview of reviews to elucidate and quantify t...

    Authors: Sabrina Mai Nielsen, Simon Tarp, Robin Christensen, Henning Bliddal, Louise Klokker and Marius Henriksen
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:64
  20. A rigorous systematic review and meta-analysis focused on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of non-individualised homeopathic treatment has not previously been reported. We tested the null hypothesis that th...

    Authors: Robert T. Mathie, Nitish Ramparsad, Lynn A. Legg, Jürgen Clausen, Sian Moss, Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Claudia-Martina Messow and Alex McConnachie
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:63
  21. Parental sensitivity is the interaction process by which parents (a) recognize cues from their infant, (b) interpret these cues adequately, (c) identify an appropriate response and (d) apply this response in a...

    Authors: Andréane Lavallée, Marilyn Aita, Anne Bourbonnais and Gwenaëlle De Clifford-Faugère
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:62
  22. Systematic reviews of qualitative and quantitative evidence can provide a rich understanding of complex phenomena. This type of review is increasingly popular, has been used to provide a landscape of existing ...

    Authors: Quan Nha Hong, Pierre Pluye, Mathieu Bujold and Maggy Wassef
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:61
  23. Suboptimal thyroid hormone therapy including under-replacement and over-replacement is common amongst patients with hypothyroidism. This is a significant health concern as affected patients are at risk of adve...

    Authors: Rosie Dew, Onyebuchi Okosieme, Colin Dayan, Vinay Eligar, Ishrat Khan, Salman Razvi, Simon Pearce and Scott Wilkes
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:60
  24. Frequently cited benefit-cost ratios suggest that interventions to improve neurodevelopment have high economic returns when implemented during pregnancy and early childhood. However, there are many challenges ...

    Authors: Karen M. Edmond, Natalie A. Strobel, Kimberley McAuley, Elizabeth Geelhoed and Lisa Hurt
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:59
  25. Dietary advice is one of the cornerstones in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American Diabetes Association recommended a hypocaloric diet for overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes in ...

    Authors: Lukas Schwingshackl, Anna Chaimani, Georg Hoffmann, Carolina Schwedhelm and Heiner Boeing
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:57
  26. Decision support tools build upon comprehensive and timely syntheses of literature. Rapid reviews may allow supporting their development by omitting certain components of traditional systematic reviews. We thu...

    Authors: Moulikatou Adouni Lawani, Béatriz Valéra, Émilie Fortier-Brochu, France Légaré, Pierre-Hugues Carmichael, Luc Côté, Philippe Voyer, Edeltraut Kröger, Holly Witteman, Charo Rodriguez and Anik M. C. Giguere
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:56
  27. Physical frailty is a prevalent syndrome in older adults that increases vulnerability for a range of adverse outcomes including increased dependency and death. Caregivers of older adults experience significant...

    Authors: Thom Ringer, Afeez Abiola Hazzan, Arnav Agarwal, Adam Mutsaers and Alexandra Papaioannou
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:55
  28. Dysvascular partial foot amputation (PFA) is a common sequel to advanced peripheral vascular disease. Helping inform difficult discussions between patients and practitioners about the level of PFA, or the deci...

    Authors: Michael P. Dillon, Matthew Quigley and Stefania Fatone
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:54
  29. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most prevalent genital infection, especially in young women of reproductive age. In vitro and animal model experiments provide compelling evidence of the harmful effect of HPV...

    Authors: Joseph Niyibizi, Nadège Zanré, Marie-Hélène Mayrand and Helen Trottier
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:53
  30. There is a lack of high-level evidence on the surgical management of cleft palate. An appreciation of the differences in the complication rates between different surgical techniques and timing of repair is ess...

    Authors: Zach Zhang, Michael Stein, Nigel Mercer and Claudia Malic
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:52
  31. The aim of this individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) is to evaluate the effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on later maternal and early ...

    Authors: Jodie M. Dodd, Rosalie M. Grivell, Jennie Louise, Andrea R. Deussen, Lynne Giles, Ben W. Mol, Christina Vinter, Mette Tanvig, Dorte Moller Jensen, Annick Bogaerts, Roland Devlieger, Riitta Luoto, Fionnuala McAuliffe, Kristina Renault, Emma Carlsen, Nina Geiker…
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:51
  32. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant condition, caused by mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. It has widespread systemic manifestations and is associated with significant neurologic...

    Authors: Rebecca Mitchell, Sarah Barton, A. Simon Harvey and Katrina Williams
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:49
  33. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive means by which to assess the structure and function of the central nervous system. Current practices involve the administration of multiple stimuli ove...

    Authors: Rocco Cavaleri, Siobhan M. Schabrun and Lucy S. Chipchase
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:48
  34. Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia of the heart with a prevalence of approximately 2% in the western world. Atrial flutter, another arrhythmia, occurs less often with an incidence of approximate...

    Authors: Naqash J. Sethi, Sanam Safi, Emil E. Nielsen, Joshua Feinberg, Christian Gluud and Janus C. Jakobsen
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:47
  35. Freeman-Sheldon and Sheldon-Hall syndromes (FSS and SHS) and distal arthrogryposis types 1 and 3 (DA1 and DA3) are rare, often confused, congenital syndromes. Few studies exist. With reported diagnosis unrelia...

    Authors: Mikaela I. Poling, José Andrés Morales Corado and Robert L. Chamberlain
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:46
  36. Evidence suggests that newborn and child health systematic reviews and meta-analyses exhibit poor quality in reporting. The “Preferred Reporting Items in Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis” (PRISMA) and PRISM...

    Authors: Mufiza Farid-Kapadia, Kariym C. Joachim, Chrinna Balasingham, April Clyburne-Sherin and Martin Offringa
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:31
  37. As eHealth interventions prove both efficacious and practical, and as they arguably overcome certain barriers encountered by traditional face-to-face treatment for chronic pain, their number has increased dram...

    Authors: Brian W. Slattery, Stephanie Haugh, Kady Francis, Laura O’Connor, Katie Barrett, Christopher P. Dwyer, Siobhan O’Higgins, Jonathan Egan and Brian E. McGuire
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:45
  38. The Cochrane risk of bias tool is commonly criticized for having a low reliability. We aimed to investigate whether training of raters, with objective and standardized instructions on how to assess risk of bia...

    Authors: Bruno R. da Costa, Brooke Beckett, Alison Diaz, Nina M. Resta, Bradley C. Johnston, Matthias Egger, Peter Jüni and Susan Armijo-Olivo
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:44
  39. Overweight and obesity are well-known risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases including hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in the general population. Survivors of childhood brai...

    Authors: Kuan-Wen Wang, Adam Fleming, Sheila K. Singh, Laura Banfield, Russell J. de Souza, Lehana Thabane and M. Constantine Samaan
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:43
  40. Excess body weight and heavy alcohol consumption are two of the greatest contributors to global disease. Alcohol use peaks in early adulthood. Alcohol consumption can also exacerbate weight gain. A high body m...

    Authors: Stephanie Scott, Kathryn Parkinson, Eileen Kaner, Shannon Robalino, Martine Stead, Christine Power, Niamh Fitzgerald, Wendy Wrieden and Ashley Adamson
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:42
  41. Guideline developers and other users of systematic reviews need information about whether a medical or preventive intervention is likely to benefit or harm some patients more (or less) than the average in orde...

    Authors: Evelyn P. Whitlock, Michelle Eder, Jamie H. Thompson, Daniel E. Jonas, Corinne V. Evans, Janelle M. Guirguis-Blake and Jennifer S. Lin
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:41
  42. Stroke can lead to significant impairment of upper limb function which affects performance of activities of daily living (ADL). Functional electrical stimulation (FES) involves electrical stimulation of motor ...

    Authors: John Eraifej, William Clark, Benjamin France, Sebastian Desando and David Moore
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:40
  43. Diabetes has become a global health emergency affecting high-, middle- and low-income countries. Previous systematic reviews have either focused on patients’ adherence to diabetes self-care behaviours only or ...

    Authors: Victor Mogre, Natalie A. Johnson, Flora Tzelepis, Jonathan Shaw and Christine Paul
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:39
  44. Primary care electronic medical record (EMR) data are being used for research, surveillance, and clinical monitoring. To broaden the reach and usability of EMR data, case definitions must be specified to ident...

    Authors: Sepideh Souri, Nicola E. Symonds, Azin Rouhi, Brendan C. Lethebe, Stephanie Garies, Paul E. Ronksley, Tyler S. Williamson, Gabriel E. Fabreau, Richard Birtwhistle, Hude Quan and Kerry A. McBrien
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:38
  45. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of fracture and cardiovascular mortality. The risk of fracture in hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD), and kidney transplantation (KT) ...

    Authors: Aboubacar Sidibé, Lynne Moore, Sonia Jean and Fabrice Mac-Way
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:37
  46. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common and important disease. There are different tests for diagnosis, one of which is computed tomographic colonography (CTC). No test is perfect, and patients with normal CTC may...

    Authors: Andrew A. Plumb, Anu Obaro, Thomas Fanshawe, Ulysses S. Torres, Rachel Baldwin-Cleland, Steve Halligan and David Burling
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:36
  47. Despite limited evidence of effectiveness, withdrawal (discontinuation or dose reduction) of high risk medications known as “fall-risk increasing drugs” (FRIDs) is typically conducted as a fall prevention stra...

    Authors: Justin Yusen Lee and Anne Holbrook
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2017 6:33

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