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  1. The aim of this rapid knowledge synthesis was to provide relevant research evidence to inform the implementation of a new health service in Nova Scotia, Canada: Collaborative Emergency Centres (CECs). CECs pro...

    Authors: Jill A Hayden, Lara Killian, Austin Zygmunt, Jessica Babineau, Ruth Martin-Misener, Jan L Jensen and Alix J Carter

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:7

    Content type: Methodology

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  2. The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex a...

    Authors: Alison O’Mara-Eves, James Thomas, John McNaught, Makoto Miwa and Sophia Ananiadou

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:5

    Content type: Research

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Systematic Reviews 2015 4:59

  3. Overweight and obesity, which have a substantial impact on health in the general population, have similar prevalence in solid organ transplant recipients but carry even more serious ramifications. As this grou...

    Authors: Sonja Beckmann, Nataša Ivanović, Gerda Drent, Todd Ruppar and Sabina De Geest

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:2

    Content type: Protocol

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  4. Systematic reviews should build on a protocol that describes the rationale, hypothesis, and planned methods of the review; few reviews report whether a protocol exists. Detailed, well-described protocols can f...

    Authors: David Moher, Larissa Shamseer, Mike Clarke, Davina Ghersi, Alessandro Liberati, Mark Petticrew, Paul Shekelle and Lesley A Stewart

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:1

    Content type: Research

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  5. Researchers often wish to carry out additional calculations or analyses using the survival data from one or more studies of other authors. When it is not possible to obtain the raw data directly, reconstructio...

    Authors: Zhihui Liu, Benjamin Rich and James A Hanley

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:151

    Content type: Methodology

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  6. Pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in the peri-operative period involves a trade-off between reduction in venous thromboembolism (VTE) and an increase in bleeding. Baseline risks, in the absence of prophylaxis...

    Authors: Kari AO Tikkinen, Arnav Agarwal, Samantha Craigie, Rufus Cartwright, Michael K Gould, Jari Haukka, Richard Naspro, Giacomo Novara, Per Morten Sandset, Reed A Siemieniuk, Philippe D Violette and Gordon H Guyatt

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:150

    Content type: Protocol

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  7. Experimental designs for evaluating knowledge translation (KT) interventions for professional behavior change can provide strong estimates of intervention effectiveness but offer limited insight how the interv...

    Authors: Shannon D Scott, Thomas Rotter, Lisa Hartling, Thane Chambers and Katherine H Bannar-Martin

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:149

    Content type: Protocol

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  8. Dietary interventions are considered an important aspect of clinical practice, more so in the face of the rising prevalence of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases globally. Routinely, most doctors do...

    Authors: Victor Mogre, Albert Scherpbier, Tim Dornan, Fred Stevens, Paul Armah Aryee and Mary Gemma Cherry

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:148

    Content type: Protocol

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  9. The rapid pace of modern life requires working-age women to juggle occupational, family and social demands. This modern lifestyle has been shown to have a detrimental effect on health, often associated with in...

    Authors: Jennifer L Reed, Stephanie A Prince, Christie A Cole, J George Fodor, Swapnil Hiremath, Kerri-Anne Mullen, Heather E Tulloch, Erica Wright and Robert D Reid

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:147

    Content type: Protocol

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  10. In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), hepatitis C virus (HCV) distribution appears to present a wide range of prevalence. The scale and nature of HCV disease burden is poorly known in the Horn of Africa ...

    Authors: Karima Chaabna, Yousra A Mohamoud, Hiam Chemaitelly, Ghina R Mumtaz and Laith J Abu-Raddad

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:146

    Content type: Protocol

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  11. Suicide is a major public health problem and globally is the second leading cause of death in young adults. Globally, there are 164,000 suicides per year in young people under 25 years. Depression is a strong ...

    Authors: Lynda Tait and Maria Michail

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:145

    Content type: Protocol

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  12. The Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) tool has been widely embraced by the systematic review community, but several studies have reported that its reliability is low. We aim to investigate whether training of raters...

    Authors: Bruno R da Costa, Nina M Resta, Brooke Beckett, Nicholas Israel-Stahre, Alison Diaz, Bradley C Johnston, Matthias Egger, Peter Jüni and Susan Armijo-Olivo

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:144

    Content type: Protocol

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  13. Practical solutions are needed to support the appropriate use of available health system resources as countries are continually pressured to ‘do more with less’ in health care. Increasingly, health systems and...

    Authors: Michael G Wilson, Moriah E Ellen, John N Lavis, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Kaelan A Moat, Joshua Shemer, Terry Sullivan, Sarah Garner, Ron Goeree, Roberto Grilli, Justin Peffer and Kevin Samra

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:143

    Content type: Protocol

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  14. A rigorous and focused systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of individualised homeopathic treatment has not previously been undertaken. We tested the hypothesis that the o...

    Authors: Robert T Mathie, Suzanne M Lloyd, Lynn A Legg, Jürgen Clausen, Sian Moss, Jonathan RT Davidson and Ian Ford

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:142

    Content type: Research

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  15. Participation in leisure-time physical activity benefits health and is thought to be more prevalent in higher socioeconomic groups. Evidence indicates that childhood socioeconomic circumstances may have long-t...

    Authors: Ahmed Elhakeem, Rachel Cooper, David Bann and Rebecca Hardy

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:141

    Content type: Protocol

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  16. Prognostic factors are associated with the risk of future health outcomes in individuals with a particular health condition. The prognostic ability of such factors is increasingly being assessed in both primar...

    Authors: Janine Dretzke, Joie Ensor, Sue Bayliss, James Hodgkinson, Marie Lordkipanidzé, Richard D Riley, David Fitzmaurice and David Moore

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:140

    Content type: Methodology

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  17. Systematic reviews often investigate the effectiveness of interventions for one sex. However, identifying interventions with data presented according to the sex of study participants can be challenging due to ...

    Authors: Fiona Stewart, Cynthia Fraser, Clare Robertson, Alison Avenell, Daryll Archibald, Flora Douglas, Pat Hoddinott, Edwin van Teijlingen and Dwayne Boyers

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:78

    Content type: Methodology

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  18. There are more than 100,000 asylum seekers registered in Germany, who are granted limited access to health services. This study aims to provide a systematic overview of the empirical literature on the health s...

    Authors: Christine Schneider, Amir Mohsenpour, Stefanie Joos and Kayvan Bozorgmehr

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:139

    Content type: Protocol

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  19. Industry sponsorship has been identified as a factor correlating with positive research findings in several fields of medical science. To date, the influence of industry sponsorship in general and abdominal su...

    Authors: Pascal Probst, Kathrin Grummich, Alexis Ulrich, Markus W Büchler, Phillip Knebel and Markus K Diener

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:138

    Content type: Protocol

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  20. There is no consensus on how authors conducting meta-analysis should deal with trial participants with missing outcome data. The objectives of this study are to assess in Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic r...

    Authors: Elie A Akl, Lara A Kahale, Arnav Agarwal, Nada Al-Matari, Shanil Ebrahim, Paul Elias Alexander, Matthias Briel, Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Jason W Busse, Batoul Diab, Alfonso Iorio, Joey Kwong, Ling Li, Luciane Cruz Lopes, Reem Mustafa, Ignacio Neumann…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:137

    Content type: Protocol

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  21. Although abbreviated surgery with planned reoperation (damage control surgery) is now widely used to manage major trauma patients, the procedure and its component interventions have not been evaluated in rando...

    Authors: Nela Cosic, Derek J Roberts and Henry T Stelfox

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:136

    Content type: Protocol

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  22. Strong opinions for or against the use of systematic reviews to inform policymaking have been published in the medical literature. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether funding sources and author fi...

    Authors: Susan R Forsyth, Donna H Odierna, David Krauth and Lisa A Bero

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:122

    Content type: Research

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  23. The purpose of our study is to determine the value and efficacy of searching biomedical databases beyond MEDLINE for systematic reviews.

    Authors: Yoojin Kwon, Susan E Powelson, Holly Wong, William A Ghali and John M Conly

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:135

    Content type: Research

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  24. Chronic pain disorders impact the physical, psychological, social, and financial well-being of between 10%–30% of Canadians. The primary aims of psychological interventions targeting chronic pain disorders are...

    Authors: Taylor Hatchard, Chris Lepage, Brian Hutton, Becky Skidmore and Patricia A Poulin

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:134

    Content type: Protocol

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  25. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating and costly mental disorder. Although commercially available antidepressants have proliferated over the last 20 years, a substantial number of patients either d...

    Authors: Yiyun Liu, Xinyu Zhou, Bin Qin, Cinzia Del Giovane, Yuqing Zhang and Peng Xie

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:133

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  26. The majority of North American adult females do not meet current physical activity recommendations (150 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) per week accrued in ≥10 min bouts) ultimat...

    Authors: Stephanie A Prince, Jennifer L Reed, Kara A Nerenberg, Elizabeth A Kristjansson, Swapnil Hiremath, Kristi B Adamo, Heather E Tulloch, Kerri-Anne Mullen, J George Fodor, Erica Wright and Robert D Reid

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:132

    Content type: Protocol

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  27. Pregnant women who gain excess weight are at risk of complications during pregnancy and in the long term. Interventions based on diet and physical activity minimise gestational weight gain with varied effect o...

    Authors: Anneloes E Ruifrok, Ewelina Rogozinska, Mireille NM van Poppel, Girish Rayanagoudar, Sally Kerry, Christianne JM de Groot, SeonAe Yeo, Emma Molyneaux, Fionnuala M McAuliffe, Lucilla Poston, Tracy Roberts, Richard D Riley, Arri Coomarasamy, Khalid Khan, Ben Willem Mol and Shakila Thangaratinam

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:131

    Content type: Protocol

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Systematic Reviews 2015 4:101

  28. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the long-term efficacy of diet plus exercise (D + E) vs. diet (D), D + E vs. exercise (E) and D vs. E on anthropometric outcomes and cardiovascular risk factors in ...

    Authors: Lukas Schwingshackl, Sofia Dias and Georg Hoffmann

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:130

    Content type: Research

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  29. Health technology assessment (HTA) is increasingly performed at the local or hospital level where the costs, impacts, and benefits of health technologies can be directly assessed. Although local/hospital-based...

    Authors: Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Marie Desmartis, Thomas Poder and William Witteman

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:129

    Content type: Research

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  30. Various studies are currently investigating ways to prevent lifestyle-related diseases and obesity among workers through interventions using incentive strategies, including price discounts for low-fat snacks a...

    Authors: Kimi Sawada, Erika Ota, Sadequa Shahrook and Rintaro Mori

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:128

    Content type: Protocol

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  31. Depression and coronary heart disease (CHD) are frequently comorbid and portend higher morbidity, mortality and poorer quality of life. Prior systematic reviews of depression treatment randomized controlled tr...

    Authors: Phillip J Tully and Harald Baumeister

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:127

    Content type: Protocol

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  32. Publication bias is a major threat to the validity of systematic reviews. Searches of clinical trials registries can help to identify unpublished trials, though little is known about how often these resources ...

    Authors: Christopher W Jones, Lukas G Keil, Mark A Weaver and Timothy F Platts-Mills

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:126

    Content type: Research

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  33. There has been a growing emphasis on evidence-informed decision-making in health care. Systematic reviews, such as those produced by the Cochrane Collaboration, have been a key component of this movement. The ...

    Authors: Frances Bunn, Daksha Trivedi, Phil Alderson, Laura Hamilton, Alice Martin and Steve Iliffe

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:125

    Content type: Research

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  34. Major depressive disorder (MDD) may be present in 10%–20% of patients in medical settings. Routine depression screening is sometimes recommended to improve depression management. However, studies of the diagno...

    Authors: Brett D Thombs, Andrea Benedetti, Lorie A Kloda, Brooke Levis, Ioana Nicolau, Pim Cuijpers, Simon Gilbody, John P A Ioannidis, Dean McMillan, Scott B Patten, Ian Shrier, Russell J Steele and Roy C Ziegelstein

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:124

    Content type: Protocol

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  35. There is growing interest in the use of blood components for pre-hospital resuscitation of patients with major traumatic haemorrhage. It has been speculated that early resuscitation with blood components may h...

    Authors: Janine Dretzke, Iain M Smith, Robert H James and Mark J Midwinter

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:123

    Content type: Protocol

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  36. The production of high quality systematic reviews requires rigorous methods that are time-consuming and resource intensive. Citation screening is a key step in the systematic review process. An opportunity to ...

    Authors: Lauren Ng, Veronica Pitt, Kit Huckvale, Ornella Clavisi, Tari Turner, Russell Gruen and Julian H Elliott

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:121

    Content type: Research

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  37. Adults spend the majority of their time being sedentary, and evidence suggests that those who spend more of their day engaged in sedentary activities (TV viewing, sitting, screen-based activities) are at incre...

    Authors: Stephanie A Prince, Katelin M Gresty, Jennifer L Reed, Erica Wright, Mark S Tremblay and Robert D Reid

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:120

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  38. Medical device procurement processes for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are a poorly understood and researched topic. To support LMIC policy formulation in this area, international public health orga...

    Authors: Karin Diaconu, Yen-Fu Chen, Semira Manaseki-Holland, Carole Cummins and Richard Lilford

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:118

    Content type: Protocol

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  39. Neuroborreliosis is a tick-borne infectious disease of the nervous system caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Common clinical manifestations of neuroborreliosis are cranial nerve dysfunctions, polyradiculoneuritis, a...

    Authors: Rick Dersch, Michael H Freitag, Stefanie Schmidt, Harriet Sommer, Gerta Rücker, Sebastian Rauer and Joerg J Meerpohl

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:117

    Content type: Protocol

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  40. Antipsychotic medications, particularly second-generation antipsychotics, are increasingly being used to alleviate the symptoms of schizophrenia and other severe mental disorders in the pediatric population. W...

    Authors: Eric Druyts, Shawn Eapen, Ping Wu and Kristian Thorlund

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:116

    Content type: Protocol

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  41. Scleroderma affects the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in 90% of all cases. Malnutrition, diarrhea, and constipation are some GI complications that can stem from scleroderma, and they contribute considerably to i...

    Authors: Brian Younho Hong, Raymond Giang, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Maggie Larche and Lehana Thabane

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:115

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  42. Review of theory is an area of growing methodological advancement. Theoretical reviews are particularly useful where the literature is complex, multi-discipline, or contested. It has been suggested that adopti...

    Authors: Mhairi Campbell, Matt Egan, Theo Lorenc, Lyndal Bond, Frank Popham, Candida Fenton and Michaela Benzeval

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:114

    Content type: Methodology

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  43. Research has indicated that adverse effects terms are increasingly prevalent in the title, abstract or indexing terms of articles that contain adverse drug effects data in MEDLINE and Embase. However, it is un...

    Authors: Su Golder, Kath Wright and Mark Rodgers

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:113

    Content type: Research

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  44. Risk for lung cancer in workers exposed to benzidine (BZ) and/or beta-naphthylamine (BNA), which are well-known bladder carcinogens, has been examined in many epidemiological studies, but individual epidemiolo...

    Authors: Kimiko Tomioka, Keigo Saeki, Kenji Obayashi, Yuu Tanaka and Norio Kurumatani

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:112

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  45. Childhood overweight and obesity are associated with significant health consequences. Early and successful treatment of this public health issue is necessary. Although several intervention programs for childre...

    Authors: Laila B van der Heijden, Edith JM Feskens and Arieke J Janse

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:111

    Content type: Protocol

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  46. The use of network meta-analysis has increased dramatically in recent years. WinBUGS, a freely available Bayesian software package, has been the most widely used software package to conduct network meta-analys...

    Authors: Stephen Brown, Brian Hutton, Tammy Clifford, Doug Coyle, Daniel Grima, George Wells and Chris Cameron

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:110

    Content type: Methodology

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  47. Chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, impose significant burden to public health. Most chronic diseases are associated with underlying preventable risk factors, such as elevated...

    Authors: Candyce Hamel, Adrienne Stevens, Kavita Singh, Mohammed T Ansari, Esther Myers, Paula Ziegler, Brian Hutton, Arya Sharma, Lise M Bjerre, Shannon Fenton, David CW Lau, Kathryn O’Hara, Robert Reid, Erinn Salewski, Ian Shrier, Noreen Willows…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:108

    Content type: Protocol

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  48. Lean is a set of operating philosophies and methods that help create a maximum value for patients by reducing waste and waits. It emphasizes the consideration of the customer’s needs, employee involvement and ...

    Authors: Adegboyega K Lawal, Thomas Rotter, Leigh Kinsman, Nazmi Sari, Liz Harrison, Cathy Jeffery, Mareike Kutz, Mohammad F Khan and Rachel Flynn

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:103

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

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