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  1. Content type: Research

    There is considerable unexplained heterogeneity in previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of patient decision aids on the accuracy of knowledge of outcome probabil...

    Authors: Stephen J Gentles, Dawn Stacey, Carol Bennett, Mohamad Alshurafa and Stephen D Walter

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:95

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  2. Content type: Commentary

    Cochrane systematic reviews have proven to be beneficial for decision making processes, both on a practitioner and a policy level, and there are current initiatives to extend the types of evidence used by them...

    Authors: Karin Hannes, Andrew Booth, Janet Harris and Jane Noyes

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:84

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  3. Content type: Research

    Post-marketing surveillance (PMS) may identify rare serious incidents or adverse events due to the long-term use of a medical device, which was not captured in the pre-market process. Percutaneous transluminal...

    Authors: Julie Polisena, Alan J Forster, Karen Cimon and Danielle Rabb

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:94

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  4. Content type: Protocol

    Three meta-analyses and one systematic review have been conducted on the question of whether self-collected specimens are as accurate as clinician-collected specimens for STI screening. However, these reviews ...

    Authors: Darlene Taylor, Carole Lunny, Tom Wong, Mark Gilbert, Neville Li, Richard Lester, Mel Krajden, Linda Hoang and Gina Ogilvie

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:93

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  5. Content type: Protocol

    Pediatric osteomyelitis is a bacterial infection of bones requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment using parenteral followed by enteral agents. Major complications of pediatric osteomyelitis include transition...

    Authors: Chelsey Grimbly, Jeff Odenbach, Ben Vandermeer, Sarah Forgie and Sarah Curtis

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:92

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  6. Content type: Research

    In 1996, shortly after the founding of The Cochrane Collaboration, leading figures in test evaluation research established a Methods Group to focus on the relatively new and rapidly evolving methods for the sy...

    Authors: Mariska MG Leeflang, Jonathan J Deeks, Yemisi Takwoingi and Petra Macaskill

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:82

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  7. Content type: Protocol

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a chronic disease, with fatal recurrences occurring in 5% to 9% of patients, yet it is also one of the best examples of preventable disease. Prognostic models that utilise multi...

    Authors: Joie Ensor, Richard D Riley, David Moore, Susan Bayliss, Sue Jowett and David A Fitzmaurice

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:91

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  8. Content type: Protocol

    The use of procedural sedation outside the operating theatre has increased in hospital settings and has gained popularity among non-anesthesiologists. Sedative agents used for procedural pain, although effecti...

    Authors: Siobhán McCoy, Abel Wakai, Carol Blackburn, Michael Barrett, Adrian Murphy, Maria Brenner, Philip Larkin, Gloria Crispino-O’Connell, Savithiri Ratnapalan and Ronan O’Sullivan

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:89

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  9. Content type: Protocol

    Numerous tools and items have been developed in all health areas to assess the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The Cochrane Collaboration (CC) released a new tool to assess bias in RCTs, b...

    Authors: Susan Armijo-Olivo, Jorge Fuentes, Todd Rogers, Lisa Hartling, Humam Saltaji and Greta G Cummings

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:88

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  10. Content type: Protocol

    Multimorbidity is increasingly prevalent but, aside from epidemiological work, the impact on associated provision of healthcare and/or education is little understood. For example, it is unclear how or why heal...

    Authors: Sarah Yardley, Elizabeth Cottrell and Joanne Protheroe

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:87

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  11. Content type: Protocol

    The concept of lung sounds conveying information regarding lung physiology has been used extensively in clinical practice, particularly with physical auscultation using a stethoscope. Advances in computer tech...

    Authors: Marc P Berry, Luigi Camporota and George Ntoumenopoulos

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:86

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  12. Content type: Commentary

    The Cochrane Collaboration was established in 1993, following the opening of the UK Cochrane Centre in 1992, at a time when searching for studies for inclusion in systematic reviews was not well-developed. Rev...

    Authors: Carol Lefebvre, Julie Glanville, L Susan Wieland, Bernadette Coles and Alison L Weightman

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:78

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  13. Content type: Protocol

    Racism is increasingly recognized as a key determinant of health. A growing body of epidemiological evidence shows strong associations between self-reported racism and poor health outcomes across diverse minor...

    Authors: Yin Paradies, Naomi Priest, Jehonathan Ben, Mandy Truong, Arpana Gupta, Alex Pieterse, Margaret Kelaher and Gilbert Gee

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:85

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  14. Content type: Commentary

    Cochrane Reviews are intended to help providers, practitioners and patients make informed decisions about health care. The goal of the Cochrane Applicability and Recommendation Methods Group (ARMG) is to devel...

    Authors: Miranda W Langendam, Elie A Akl, Philipp Dahm, Paul Glasziou, Gordon Guyatt and Holger J Schünemann

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:81

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  15. Content type: Methodology

    Methods for systematic reviews of the effects of health interventions have focused mainly on addressing the question of 'What works?’ or 'Is this intervention effective in achieving one or more specific outcom...

    Authors: Ian Shemilt, David McDaid, Kevin Marsh, Catherine Henderson, Evelina Bertranou, Jacqueline Mallander, Mike Drummond, Miranda Mugford and Luke Vale

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:83

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  16. Content type: Protocol

    Effective interventions to improve quality of life of cancer survivors are essential. Numerous randomized controlled trials have evaluated the effects of physical activity or psychosocial interventions on heal...

    Authors: Laurien M Buffart, Joeri Kalter, Mai JM Chinapaw, Martijn W Heymans, Neil K Aaronson, Kerry S Courneya, Paul B Jacobsen, Robert U Newton, Irma M Verdonck-de Leeuw and Johannes Brug

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:75

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  17. Content type: Research

    Systematic reviews are important for informing clinical practice and health policy. The aim of this study was to examine the bibliometrics of systematic reviews and to determine the amount of variance in citat...

    Authors: Pamela Royle, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Katharine Barnard and Norman Waugh

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:74

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  18. Content type: Protocol

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) causes progressive destruction of pancreatic beta cells leading to absolute insulin deficiency. Treatment of T1DM requires insulin, and some evidence suggests that longer acting...

    Authors: Andrea C Tricco, Huda M Ashoor, Charlene Soobiah, Brenda Hemmelgarn, David Moher, Brian Hutton, Catherine H Yu, Sumit R Majumdar and Sharon E Straus

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:73

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  19. Content type: Protocol

    Approximately 20,000 people have a transient ischemic attack (TIA) and 23,375 have a minor stroke in England each year. Fatigue, psychological and cognitive impairments are well documented post-stroke. Evidenc...

    Authors: Grace M Moran, Benjamin Fletcher, Melanie Calvert, Max G Feltham, Catherine Sackley and Tom Marshall

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:72

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  20. Content type: Methodology

    Prognosis research aims to identify factors associated with the course of health conditions. It is often challenging to judge the overall quality of research evidence in systematic reviews about prognosis due ...

    Authors: Anna Huguet, Jill A Hayden, Jennifer Stinson, Patrick J McGrath, Christine T Chambers, Michelle E Tougas and Lori Wozney

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:71

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  21. Content type: Protocol

    Non-cognitive behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia affect up to 90% of people with dementia during the disease course and result in distress, increased carer burden, high service utilization and ...

    Authors: Daksha Trivedi, Claire Goodman, Angela Dickinson, Heather Gage, Jennifer McLaughlin, Jill Manthorpe, Kunle Ashaye and Steve Iliffe

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:70

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  22. Content type: Commentary

    In 2011, The Institute of Medicine (IOM) identified a set of methodological standards to improve the validity, trustworthiness, and usefulness of systematic reviews. These standards, based on a mix of theoreti...

    Authors: Stephanie M Chang, Eric B Bass, Nancy Berkman, Timothy S Carey, Robert L Kane, Joseph Lau and Sara Ratichek

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:69

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  23. Content type: Protocol

    Infection occurs commonly among patients hospitalized after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and has been associated with increased intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay and an elevated risk of poor neu...

    Authors: Brittney NV Scott, Derek J Roberts, Helen Lee Robertson, Andreas H Kramer, Kevin B Laupland, Shalina S Ousman, Paul Kubes and David A Zygun

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:68

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  24. Content type: Protocol

    Opioids are prescribed frequently and increasingly for the management of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). Current systematic reviews have a number of limitations, leaving uncertainty with regard to the benefits...

    Authors: Jason W Busse, Stefan Schandelmaier, Mostafa Kamaleldin, Sandy Hsu, John J Riva, Per Olav Vandvik, Ludwig Tsoi, Tommy Lam, Shanil Ebrahim, Bradley Johnston, Lori Oliveri, Luis Montoya, Regina Kunz, Anna Malandrino, Neera Bhatnagar, Sohail M Mulla…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:66

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  25. Content type: Protocol

    Literature documents that immigrant women in Canada have a higher prevalence of postpartum depression symptomatology than Canadian-born women. There exists a need to synthesize information on the contextual fa...

    Authors: Gina MA Higginbottom, Myfanwy Morgan, Joyce O’Mahony, Yvonne Chiu, Deb Kocay, Mirande Alexandre, Joan Forgeron and Marilyn Young

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:65

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  26. Content type: Protocol

    The role of vitamin D in management of depression is unclear. Results from observational and emerging randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy of vitamin D in depression lack consistency ...

    Authors: Guowei Li, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Zainab Samaan, Shiyuan Zhang, Jonathan D Adachi, Alexandra Papaioannou and Lehana Thabane

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:64

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  27. Content type: Research

    Most patients who sustain mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have persistent symptoms at 1 week and 1 month after injury. This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of interventions initiated in acu...

    Authors: Jocelyn Gravel, Antonio D’Angelo, Benoit Carrière, Louis Crevier, Miriam H Beauchamp, Jean-Marc Chauny, Maggy Wassef and Nils Chaillet

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:63

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  28. Content type: Protocol

    The purpose of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) research group project is to establish an individual patient-level database from high quality studies of ONSD ultrasonography for the detection of raised i...

    Authors: Julie Dubourg, Mahmoud Messerer, Dimitrios Karakitsos, Venkatakrishna Rajajee, Erik Antonsen, Etienne Javouhey, Alessandro Cammarata, Michael Cotton, Roy Thomas Daniel, Carmelo Denaro, Emmanuel Douzinas, Clément Dubost, Moncef Berhouma, Behrouz Kassai, Muriel Rabilloud, Antonino Gullo…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:62

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  29. Content type: Protocol

    Health professionals and policymakers aspire to make healthcare decisions based on the entire relevant research evidence. This, however, can rarely be achieved because a considerable amount of research finding...

    Authors: Katharina Felicitas Mueller, Joerg J Meerpohl, Matthias Briel, Gerd Antes, Erik von Elm, Britta Lang, Viktoria Gloy, Edith Motschall, Guido Schwarzer and Dirk Bassler

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:60

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  30. Content type: Protocol

    Rehabilitation interventions are a key component of the services required by individuals with neurotrauma to recover or compensate for altered abilities and achieve optimal social participation. Primary studie...

    Authors: Marie-Eve Lamontagne, Cynthia Gagnon, Anne-Sophie Allaire and Luc Noreau

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:59

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  31. Content type: Protocol

    Despite strong indications that fatigue is the most common and debilitating symptom after traumatic brain injury, little is known about its frequency, natural history, or relation to other factors. The current...

    Authors: Tatyana Mollayeva, Tetyana Kendzerska, Shirin Mollayeva, Colin M Shapiro, Angela Colantonio and J David Cassidy

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:57

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  32. Content type: Protocol

    The evidence that higher levels of physical activity and/or lower levels of physical inactivity are associated with beneficial health-related outcomes stems mainly from observational studies. Findings from the...

    Authors: David Nunan, Kamal R Mahtani, Nia Roberts and Carl Heneghan

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:56

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  33. Content type: Protocol

    Each year, 287,000 women die from complications related to pregnancy or childbirth, and 3.8 million newborns die before reaching 28 days of life. The near totality (99%) of maternal and neonatal deaths occurs ...

    Authors: Étienne V Langlois, Malgorzata Miszkurka, Daniela Ziegler, Igor Karp and Maria Victoria Zunzunegui

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:55

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  34. Content type: Protocol

    Based on small to moderate effect sizes for the wide range of symptomatic treatments in osteoarthritis (OA), and on the heterogeneity of OA patients, treatment guidelines for OA have stressed the need for rese...

    Authors: Marienke van Middelkoop, Krysia S Dziedzic, Michael Doherty, Weiya Zhang, Johannes W Bijlsma, Timothy E McAlindon, Stefan L Lohmander and Sita MA Bierma-Zeinstra

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:54

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  35. Content type: Methodology

    To identify demographic and clinical characteristics associated with cases of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL) in patients with Crohn’s disease, and to assess strength of evidence for a causal relationshi...

    Authors: Saranya A Selvaraj, Elizabeth Chairez, Lisa M Wilson, Mark Lazarev, Eric B Bass and Susan Hutfless

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:53

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  36. Content type: Research

    Compared to subgroup analyses in a single study or in a traditional meta-analysis, an individual patient data meta-analysis (IPDMA) offers important potential advantages. We studied how many IPDMAs report on s...

    Authors: Gerjon Hannink, Hein G Gooszen, Cornelis JHM van Laarhoven and Maroeska M Rovers

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:52

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  37. Content type: Research

    The identification of eligible controlled trials for systematic reviews of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions can be difficult. To increase access to these difficult to locate trials, t...

    Authors: L Susan Wieland, Eric Manheimer, Margaret Sampson, Jabez Paul Barnabas, Lex M Bouter, Kiho Cho, Myeong Soo Lee, Xun Li, Jianping Liu, David Moher, Tetsuro Okabe, Elizabeth D Pienaar, Byung-Cheul Shin, Prathap Tharyan, Kiichiro Tsutani, Daniëlle A van der Windt…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:51

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  38. Content type: Protocol

    Hysterosalpingosonography has been suggested as a less invasive alternative to hysterosalpingography for detecting tubal occlusion among subfertile women. We aim to determine the diagnostic accuracy of hystero...

    Authors: Sarah Maheux-Lacroix, Amélie Boutin, Lynne Moore, Marie-Ève Bergeron, Emmanuel Bujold, Philippe Y Laberge, Madeleine Lemyre and Sylvie Dodin

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:50

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  39. Content type: Protocol

    There is a growing demand for services whereby individuals receive assistance from care workers for personal care within the home. This has led to the development of re-ablement or restorative homecare service...

    Authors: Phillip J Whitehead, Avril ER Drummond, Marion F Walker and Ruth H Parry

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:49

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  40. Content type: Protocol

    Shared decision making in pediatrics is unique because it often involves active participation of both the child or adolescent patient and his or her caregiver(s) in the decision making process with the clinici...

    Authors: Kirk D Wyatt, Gabriela Prutsky Lopez, Juan Pablo Domecq Garces, Patricia Erwin, William B Brinkman, Victor M Montori and Annie LeBlanc

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:48

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  41. Content type: Protocol

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) results from insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. T2DM treatment is a step-wise approach beginning with lifestyle modifications (for example, diet, exercise), fol...

    Authors: Andrea C Tricco, Jesmin Antony, Charlene Soobiah, Brenda Hemmelgarn, David Moher, Brian Hutton, Catherine H Yu, Sumit R Majumdar and Sharon E Straus

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:47

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  42. Content type: Protocol

    Serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonists are a class of antiemetic medications often used to prevent nausea and vomiting among patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery. However, recent studies s...

    Authors: Andrea C Tricco, Charlene Soobiah, Jesmin Antony, Brenda Hemmelgarn, David Moher, Brian Hutton and Sharon E Straus

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:46

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  43. Content type: Protocol

    Patients undergoing surgery or chemotherapy often experience nausea and vomiting. To increase their quality of life and treatment satisfaction, antiemetic medication, such as serotonin receptor antagonists, is...

    Authors: Andrea C Tricco, Charlene Soobiah, Jesmin Antony, Brenda Hemmelgarn, David Moher, Brian Hutton and Sharon E Straus

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:45

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