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  1. Health care professionals (HCPs) are able to make effective decisions regarding patient care through the use of systematically developed clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). These recommendations are especiall...

    Authors: Jennifer R. Tomasone, Rushil Chaudhary and Melissa C. Brouwers

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:113

    Content type: Protocol

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  2. Women in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by high rates of HIV, yet relatively few products exist for female-initiated HIV prevention. New antiretroviral (ARV)-based prevention options could ...

    Authors: Robyn Eakle, Caitlin Jarrett, Adam Bourne, Jonathan Stadler and Heidi Larson

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:111

    Content type: Protocol

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  3. Universities, public institutions, and the transfer of knowledge to the private sector play a major role in the development of medical technologies. The decisions of universities and public institutions regard...

    Authors: Rosa Jahn, Olaf Müller and Kayvan Bozorgmehr

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:110

    Content type: Protocol

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  4. Large numbers of people provide carer roles for survivors of stroke. Person-centred stroke rehabilitation must consider the perspectives of carers, as stroke affects not only the stroke survivor but also the q...

    Authors: Julie A. Luker, Susanne Bernhardsson, Elizabeth Lynch, Carolyn Murray, Olivia P. Hill and Julie Bernhardt

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:108

    Content type: Protocol

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  5. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique that can be used to assess corticospinal plasticity. Current TMS practices involve the administration of multiple stimuli over target areas of the partici...

    Authors: Rocco Cavaleri, Siobhan M. Schabrun and Lucy S. Chipchase

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:107

    Content type: Protocol

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  6. Tracheostomy is one of the most frequently performed procedures in intensive care medicine. The two main approaches to form a tracheostoma are the open surgical tracheotomy (ST) and the interventional strategy...

    Authors: Rosa Klotz, Ulla Klaiber, Kathrin Grummich, Pascal Probst, Markus K. Diener, Markus W. Büchler and Phillip Knebel

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:105

    Content type: Protocol

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  7. Biased processing of body-related information may be linked to the development and maintenance of eating disorders (ED). The objective of this systematic review will be to examine the occurrence and the extent...

    Authors: Kathrin Schuck, Simone Munsch and Silvia Schneider

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:103

    Content type: Protocol

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  8. Renal replacement therapy is increasingly utilized in the intensive care unit (ICU), of which continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is most common. Despite CRRT being a relatively resource-intensive and ...

    Authors: Oleksa Rewa, Pierre-Marc Villeneuve, Dean T. Eurich, Henry T Stelfox, RT Noel Gibney, Lisa Hartling, Robin Featherstone and Sean M Bagshaw

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:102

    Content type: Protocol

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  9. Authors: Anneloes E. Ruifrok, Ewelina Rogozinska, Mireille N. M. van Poppel, Girish Rayanagoudar, Sally Kerry, Christianne J. M. de Groot, SeonAe Yeo, Emma Molyneaux, Ruben Barakat Carballo, Maria Perales, Annick Bogaerts, Jose G. Cecatti, Fernanda Surita, Jodie Dodd, Julie Owens, Nermeen El Beltagy…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:101

    Content type: Erratum

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    The original article was published in Systematic Reviews 2014 3:131

  10. Health system integration is a key component of health system reform with the goal of improving outcomes for patients, providers, and the health system. Although health systems continue to strive for better in...

    Authors: Nelly D. Oelke, Esther Suter, Maria Alice Dias da Silva Lima and Cheryl Van Vliet-Brown

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:99

    Content type: Protocol

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  11. When potentially associated with the likelihood of outcome, missing participant data represents a serious potential source of bias in randomized trials. Authors of systematic reviews frequently face this probl...

    Authors: Elie A. Akl, Lara A. Kahale, Thomas Agoritsas, Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Jason W. Busse, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Shanil Ebrahim, Bradley C. Johnston, Ignacio Neumann, Ivan Sola, Xin Sun, Per Vandvik, Yuqing Zhang, Pablo Alonso-Coello and Gordon Guyatt

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:98

    Content type: Research

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  12. Improving and sustaining the quality of hospital care is an international challenge. Patient experience data can be used to target improvement and research. However, the use of patient experience data has been...

    Authors: Michelle Beattie, Douglas J. Murphy, Iain Atherton and William Lauder

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:97

    Content type: Research

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  13. No definite consensus has been established about the optimal pressure for artificial pneumoperitoneum when performing laparoscopic surgery. It has been postulated that lowering intra-peritoneal pressure levels...

    Authors: Esther B. Kyle, Sarah Maheux-Lacroix, Amélie Boutin and Madeleine Lemyre

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:96

    Content type: Protocol

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  14. Most patients are discharged from an intensive care unit with an expectation that they will survive their hospital stay, yet these patients have high subsequent in-hospital mortality. Patients are frequently d...

    Authors: Sarah A. Vollam, Susan J. Dutton, Duncan Young and Peter J. Watkinson

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:93

    Content type: Protocol

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  15. After being discharged from hospital following the acute management of a fragility fracture, older adults may re-present to hospital emergency departments in the post-discharge period. Early re-presentation to...

    Authors: Saira A. Mathew, Kristiann C. Heesch, Elise Gane and Steven M. McPhail

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:91

    Content type: Protocol

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  16. Those planning, managing and working in health systems worldwide routinely need to make decisions regarding strategies to improve health care and promote equity. Systematic reviews of different kinds can be of...

    Authors: Etienne V. Langlois, Michael K. Ranson, Till Bärnighausen, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, Karen Daniels, Fadi El-Jardali, Abdul Ghaffar, Jeremy Grimshaw, Andy Haines, John N. Lavis, Simon Lewin, Qingyue Meng, Sandy Oliver, Tomás Pantoja, Sharon Straus, Ian Shemilt…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:90

    Content type: Commentary

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  17. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) is generally thought to be a good source to search when conducting a review of qualitative evidence. Case studies have suggested that using...

    Authors: Kath Wright, Su Golder and Kate Lewis-Light

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:104

    Content type: Research

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Systematic Reviews 2015 4:169

  18. Increasing numbers of systematic reviews evaluating the diagnostic test accuracy of technologies are being published. Currently, review teams tend to apply conventional systematic review standards to identify ...

    Authors: Louise Preston, Christopher Carroll, Paolo Gardois, Suzy Paisley and Eva Kaltenthaler

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:82

    Content type: Research

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  19. Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) is a predictable consequence of head and neck cancer and its treatment. Loss of the ability to eat and drink normally has a devastating impact on quality of life for surviv...

    Authors: Roganie Govender, Christina H Smith, Stuart A Taylor, Daphne Grey, Jane Wardle and Benjamin Gardner

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:89

    Content type: Protocol

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  20. Once-daily low-dose aspirin is routinely used for the prevention of secondary events in cardiovascular disease (CVD). The routine use of aspirin in primary prevention of CVD is less clear due to a finer balanc...

    Authors: Danai Bem, Janine Dretzke, Simon Stevens, Marie Lordkipanidzé, James Hodgkinson, Sue Bayliss, David Moore and David Fitzmaurice

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:88

    Content type: Protocol

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  21. Randomized controlled trials are the sine qua non of causal inference; however, heterogeneity of treatment effects for many chronic conditions and for many symptoms often limits their utility. Single-patient s...

    Authors: Jonathan A. Shaffer, Louis Falzon, Ken Cheung and Karina W. Davidson

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:87

    Content type: Protocol

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  22. Spasticity in the upper limb is common after acquired brain impairment and may have a significant impact on the ability to perform meaningful daily activities. Traditionally, outcome measurement in spasticity ...

    Authors: Shannon Pike, Natasha Anne Lannin, Anne Cusick, Kylie Wales, Lynne Turner-Stokes and Stephen Ashford

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:86

    Content type: Protocol

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  23. Selective reporting bias (SRB), the incomplete publication of outcomes measured or of analyses performed in a study, may lead to the over- or underestimation of treatment effects or harms. Cochrane systematic ...

    Authors: Emma K Reid, Aaron M Tejani, Lawrence N Huan, Gregory Egan, Cait O’Sullivan, Alain D Mayhew and Monisha Kabir

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:85

    Content type: Research

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  24. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) refers to acute or chronic liver injury that may occur as a consequence of using drugs and herbal or dietary supplements. Specific therapies for DILI are limited. There is cons...

    Authors: Mohamed Farouk Chughlay, Nicole Kramer, Mahmoud Werfalli, Wendy Spearman, Mark Emmanuel Engel and Karen Cohen

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:84

    Content type: Protocol

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  25. Thoracic surgical procedures impair respiratory function, decreasing ventilation and oxygenation and increasing the risk of acute respiratory failure and pulmonary complications. To prevent these clinical repe...

    Authors: Elinaldo da Conceição dos Santos and Adriana Claudia Lunardi

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:83

    Content type: Protocol

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  26. Self-management models can be a very powerful resource in the health system provided they are well tailored to a particular disease and setting. Patient outcomes have been demonstrated to improve when self-man...

    Authors: Edward Zimbudzi, Clement Lo, Marie Misso, Sanjeeva Ranasinha and Sophia Zoungas

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:81

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  27. Child health and wellbeing is influenced by multiple factors, all of which can impact on early childhood development. Adverse early life experiences can have lasting effects across the life course, sustaining ...

    Authors: Emma Coles, Helen Cheyne and Brigid Daniel

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:79

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  28. Acute cholecystitis is a common diagnosis. However, the heterogeneity of presentation makes it difficult to standardize management. Although surgery is the mainstay of treatment, critically ill patients have b...

    Authors: Peter C. Ambe, Sarantos Kaptanis, Marios Papadakis, Sebastian A. Weber and Hubert Zirngibl

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:77

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  29. Magnesium plays a key role in maintaining internal homeostasis through actions in the musculoskeletal, nervous, endocrine and cellular messenger systems. Renal excretion is the major route of magnesium elimina...

    Authors: John Floridis, Asanga Abeyaratne and Sandawana William Majoni

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:76

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  30. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) used in the health sector have well-known advantages. They can promote patient-centered healthcare, improve quality of care, and educate health professionals a...

    Authors: Geneviève Rouleau, Marie-Pierre Gagnon and José Côté

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:75

    Content type: Protocol

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  31. Diabetic individuals have a largely increased risk of lower extremity amputation (LEA) compared with non-diabetic patients. Prior systematic reviews of incidence of LEA have some limitations with respect to la...

    Authors: Tatjana Kvitkina, Maria Narres, Heiner Claessen, Sigrid Droste, Stephan Morbach, Oliver Kuss and Andrea Icks

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:74

    Content type: Protocol

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  32. A core outcome set (COS) can address problems of outcome heterogeneity and outcome reporting bias in trials and systematic reviews, including Cochrane reviews, helping to reduce waste. One of the aims of the i...

    Authors: Francesca Wuytack, Valerie Smith, Mike Clarke, Paula Williamson and Elizabeth Gargon

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:73

    Content type: Research

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  33. As persons with HIV live longer, data regarding the epidemiology of colorectal cancer are required to optimize the long-term management of these patients. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysi...

    Authors: Joseph Djiometio Nguemo, Tyler J O’Neill, Nancy Kou, Anne-Marie Tynan, Ayda Agha, Ann N Burchell and Tony Antoniou

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:72

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  34. This study aims to determine the prognostic accuracy of term MRI in very preterm born (≤32 weeks) or low-birth-weight (≤1500 g) infants for long-term (>18 months) developmental outcomes.

    Authors: Janneke van’t Hooft, Johanna H. van der Lee, Brent C. Opmeer, Cornelieke S. H. Aarnoudse-Moens, Arnold G. E. Leenders, Ben Willem J. Mol and Timo R. de Haan

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:71

    Content type: Research

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  35. It is known that risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus but it is not clear whether the risk is also elevated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). If the risk is ...

    Authors: Ferozkhan Jadhakhan, Tom Marshall and Paramjit Gill

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:69

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  36. Cervical cancer poses a huge health burden, both to developed and developing nations, making prevention and control strategies necessary. However, the challenges of designing and implementing prevention strate...

    Authors: Obinna I. Ekwunife, Andreas Gerber Grote, Christoph Mosch, James F. O’Mahony and Stefan K. Lhachimi

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:68

    Content type: Protocol

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  37. Despite the increasing prevalence of pre-diabetes worldwide, there is insufficient literature on the impact of gestational pre-diabetes on offspring outcomes. The objective of this systematic review is to dete...

    Authors: Rukia Swaleh, Ling Zeng, Lawrence Mbuagbaw and Katherine M Morrison

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:67

    Content type: Protocol

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  38. Small-study effects and time trends have been identified in meta-analyses of randomized trials. We evaluated whether these effects are also present in meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy studies.

    Authors: Wynanda Annefloor van Enst, Christiana A Naaktgeboren, Eleanor A Ochodo, Joris AH de Groot, Mariska M Leeflang, Johannes B Reitsma, Rob JPM Scholten, Karel GM Moons, Aeilko H Zwinderman, Patrick MM Bossuyt and Lotty Hooft

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:66

    Content type: Research

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  39. Workplace-based assessments were designed to facilitate observation and structure feedback on the performance of trainees in real-time clinical settings and scenarios. Research in workplace-based assessments h...

    Authors: Aileen Barrett, Rose Galvin, Yvonne Steinert, Albert Scherpbier, Ann O’Shaughnessy, Mary Horgan and Tanya Horsley

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:65

    Content type: Protocol

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  40. The burden of chronic disease on patients and the health service is growing. Current health policy emphasises the need for services which provide integrated and co-ordinated care for patients with chronic dise...

    Authors: Sarah Damery, Sarah Flanagan and Gill Combes

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:64

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  41. Organisations need to systematically identify contributory factors (or causes) which impact on patient safety in order to effectively learn from error. Investigations of error have tended to focus on taking a ...

    Authors: Sally Giles, Maria Panagioti, Andrea Hernan, Sudeh Cheraghi-Sohi and Rebecca Lawton

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:63

    Content type: Protocol

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  42. Vaccine against pertussis has been in use for several decades. Despite the widespread use of pertussis vaccine, evidence shows resurgence of pertussis in high-income countries. Pertussis surveillance data is l...

    Authors: Rudzani Muloiwa, Benjamin M Kagina, Mark E Engel and Gregory D Hussey

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:62

    Content type: Protocol

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