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  1. Content type: Protocol

    There has been a renewed interest in the place of birth, including intended home birth, for low risk women. In the absence of adequately-sized randomised controlled trials, a recent Cochrane review recommended...

    Authors: Eileen K Hutton, Angela Reitsma, Julia Thorpe, Ginny Brunton and Karyn Kaufman

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:55

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  2. Content type: Protocol

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) myocardial perfusion imaging has been suggested as a non-invasive alternative to pressure wire guided fractional flow reserve (FFR) in detecting haemodynamically significant ob...

    Authors: Rebabonye B Pharithi, Martinus Meela, Thomas Kropmans, Frank Ward, Michael Conway and Michael Newell

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:53

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  3. Content type: Protocol

    Obesity is a significant public health issue and is socially patterned, with greater prevalence of obesity observed in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Recent evidence suggests that the prevale...

    Authors: Alexandra Chung, Kathryn Backholer, Evelyn Wong, Claire Palermo, Catherine Keating and Anna Peeters

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:52

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  4. Content type: Protocol

    Antiretroviral therapy reduces mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. However, these agents have been associated with preterm birth, a...

    Authors: Andrea C Tricco, Jesmin Antony, Veroniki A Angeliki, Huda Ashoor, Brian Hutton, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, David Moher, Yaron Finkelstein, Kevin Gough and Sharon E Straus

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:51

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  5. Content type: Research

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of brief interventions (BIs) as part of the Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) model for reducing the nonmedic...

    Authors: Matthew M Young, Adrienne Stevens, James Galipeau, Tyler Pirie, Chantelle Garritty, Kavita Singh, Fatemeh Yazdi, Mohammed Golfam, Misty Pratt, Lucy Turner, Amy Porath-Waller, Cheryl Arratoon, Nancy Haley, Karen Leslie, Rhoda Reardon, Beth Sproule…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:50

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  6. Content type: Protocol

    Care homes in the UK rely on general practice for access to specialist medical and nursing care as well as referral to therapists and secondary care. Service delivery to care homes is highly variable in both q...

    Authors: Claire Goodman, Adam L Gordon, Finbarr Martin, Sue L Davies, Steve Iliffe, Clive Bowman, Justine Schneider, Julienne Meyer, Christina Victor, Heather Gage, John RF Gladman and Tom Dening

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:49

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  7. Content type: Protocol

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in humans is caused by an unchecked proinflammatory response that results in diffuse and severe lung injury, and it is associated with a mortality rate of 35 to 45%. ...

    Authors: Manoj M Lalu, David Moher, John Marshall, Dean Fergusson, Shirley HJ Mei, Malcolm Macleod, Gilly Griffin, Alexis F Turgeon, Michael Rudnicki, Jason Fishman, Marc T Avey, Becky Skidmore, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Duncan J Stewart, Kavita Singh and Lauralyn McIntyre

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:48

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  8. Content type: Protocol

    Categorizing an inherently continuous predictor in prognostic analyses raises several critical methodological issues: dependence of the statistical significance on the number and position of the chosen cut-poi...

    Authors: Benjamin Kasenda, Willi Sauerbrei, Patrick Royston and Matthias Briel

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:46

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  9. Content type: Protocol

    Use of methadone for the treatment of opioid addiction is an effective harm-reduction approach, although variability in treatment outcomes among individuals has been reported. Men and women with opioid addicti...

    Authors: Monica Bawor, Brittany B Dennis, Rebecca Anglin, Meir Steiner, Lehana Thabane and Zainab Samaan

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:45

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  10. Content type: Protocol

    Several aggregate data meta-analyses suggest that treatment guided by the serum concentration of natriuretic peptides (B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or its derivative N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic pepti...

    Authors: Maria Pufulete, Julian PT Higgins, Chris A Rogers, Lucy Dreyer, William Hollingworth, Mark Dayer, Angus Nightingale, Theresa McDonagh and Barnaby C Reeves

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:41

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  11. Content type: Protocol

    The effects of stress on ill health have become evident in recent years. Under acute stress situations, a cascade of physiological events helps the body mount an appropriate adaptive response. However, under c...

    Authors: Jacklyn Quinlan, Mai Thanh Tu, Étienne V Langlois, Mohit Kapoor, Daniela Ziegler, Hassan Fahmi and Maria Victoria Zunzunegui

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:40

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  12. Content type: Research

    Systematic reviews of healthcare interventions most often focus on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, certain circumstances warrant consideration of observational evidence, and such studies are incr...

    Authors: Maya O’Neil, Nancy Berkman, Lisa Hartling, Stephanie Chang, Johanna Anderson, Makalapua Motu’apuaka, Jeanne-Marie Guise and Marian S McDonagh

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:35

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  13. Content type: Protocol

    Acquired brain injury (ABI), often arising from stroke or trauma, is a common cause of long-term disability, physical inactivity and poor health outcomes globally. Individuals with ABI face many barriers to in...

    Authors: Taryn M Jones, Julia M Hush, Blake F Dear, Nickolai Titov and Catherine M Dean

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:39

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  14. Content type: Protocol

    Chronic conditions are a major source of morbidity, mortality and cost worldwide. Shared decision making is one way to improve care for patients with chronic conditions. Although it has been widely studied, th...

    Authors: Michael R Gionfriddo, Aaron L Leppin, Juan P Brito, Annie LeBlanc, Kasey R Boehmer, Megan A Morris, Patricia J Erwin, Larry J Prokop, Claudia L Zeballos-Palacios, German Malaga, J Jaime Miranda, Heidi M McLeod, René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Rongchong Huang, Oscar L Morey-Vargas, Mohammad Hassan Murad…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:38

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  15. Content type: Research

    In 2008, the Cochrane Collaboration introduced a tool for assessing the risk of bias in clinical trials included in Cochrane reviews. The risk of bias (RoB) tool is based on narrative descriptions of evidence-...

    Authors: Jelena Savović, Laura Weeks, Jonathan AC Sterne, Lucy Turner, Douglas G Altman, David Moher and Julian PT Higgins

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:37

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  16. Content type: Protocol

    The toxic heavy metal lead continues to be a leading environmental risk factor, with the number of attributable deaths having doubled between 1990 and 2010. Although major sources of lead exposure, in particul...

    Authors: Lisa Maria Pfadenhauer, Jacob Burns, Anke Rohwer and Eva Annette Rehfuess

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:36

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  17. Content type: Protocol

    The burden of mental health and psychosocial problems in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. An increasing number of randomized stu...

    Authors: Marianna Purgato, Alden L Gross, Mark JD Jordans, Joop TVM de Jong, Corrado Barbui and Wietse Tol

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:34

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  18. Content type: Protocol

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a significant public health burden. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a method of supported breathing used as standard care for acutely unwell patients in h...

    Authors: Chirag Dave, Alice Turner, Janine Dretzke, Sue Bayliss, Deirdre O’Brien, Sue Jowett and David Moore

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:32

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  19. Content type: Protocol

    Outbreaks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been reported in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in North America, Europe and Asia. Transmission is believed to be the result of exposure to blo...

    Authors: Holly Hagan, Joshua Neurer, Ashly E Jordan, Don C Des Jarlais, Jennifer Wu, Kirk Dombrowski, Bilal Khan, Ronald Scott Braithwaite and Jason Kessler

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:31

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  20. Content type: Protocol

    Early diagnosis and treatment of cancer is thought to be important for improving survival. Longer time between the onset of cancer symptoms and receipt of treatment may help explain the poorer survival of UK c...

    Authors: Lynne F Forrest, Sarah Sowden, Greg Rubin, Martin White and Jean Adams

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:30

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  21. Content type: Research

    This was a systematic review of the literature in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Evidence mapping was used to reveal the effect of dr...

    Authors: Fabienne Boeni, Esther Spinatsch, Katja Suter, Kurt E Hersberger and Isabelle Arnet

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:29

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  22. Content type: Protocol

    Optimal selection of blood donors is of paramount importance in ensuring the safety of blood products. The current selection process is concerned principally with the safety of the blood donor and the safety o...

    Authors: Michaël Chassé, Shane W English, Lauralyn McIntyre, Greg Knoll, Nadine Shehata, Alan Forster, Kumanan Wilson, Carl van Walraven, Alan Tinmouth and Dean A Fergusson

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:28

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  23. Content type: Methodology

    The non-availability of clinical trial results contributes to publication bias, diminishing the validity of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Although clinical trial registries have been established to red...

    Authors: Noory Y Kim, Shrikant I Bangdiwala, Kylie Thaler and Gerald Gartlehner

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:27

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  24. Content type: Protocol

    The period following discharge from a pediatric emergency department (ED) can be a time of significant vulnerability for caregivers who provide ongoing care to their child when they return home. Discharge comm...

    Authors: Janet A Curran, Andrea Murphy, Mandi Newton, Roger Zemek, Lisa Hartling, Amy Plint, Jill Chorney, Shannon MacPhee, Samuel G Campbell, Mona Jabbour, Darlene Boliver, David Petrie, Randy Colwell, Kate MacWilliams and Alicia Nolan

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:26

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  25. Content type: Research

    The most important symptom as well as one of the major diagnostic criteria for eczema is itch. Although oral antihistamines continue to be prescribed for people with eczema, it is unclear if they are effective...

    Authors: Esther J van Zuuren, Christian J Apfelbacher, Zbys Fedorowicz, Aldrin Jupiter, Uwe Matterne and Elke Weisshaar

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:25

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  26. Content type: Protocol

    Cardiogenic shock is the leading cause of death in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Despite significant advancements in health technology and research, hospital mortality approaches 50%. The intra-ao...

    Authors: Sultan Altayyar, Bram Rochwerg, Sami Alnasser, Awad Al-omari, Bandar Baw, Alison Fox-Robichaud and Waleed Alhazzani

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:24

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  27. Content type: Protocol

    In pregnancies complicated by early-onset extreme fetal growth restriction, there is a high risk of preterm birth and an overall dismal fetal prognosis. Sildenafil has been suggested to improve this prognosis....

    Authors: Wessel Ganzevoort, Zarko Alfirevic, Peter von Dadelszen, Louise Kenny, Aris Papageorghiou, Aleid van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Christian Gluud, Ben Willem Mol and Philip N Baker

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:23

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  28. Content type: Research

    To date no network meta-analysis (NMA) has accounted for baseline variations in viral load when assessing the relative efficacy of interventions for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We undertook baseline-adjusted an...

    Authors: Stuart Mealing, Isabella Ghement, Neil Hawkins, David A Scott, Benedicte Lescrauwaet, Maureen Watt, Mark Thursz, Pietro Lampertico, Lorenzo Mantovani, Edith Morais, Bruno Bregman and Michel Cucherat

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:21

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  29. Content type: Protocol

    Resilience has been defined as the ability of individuals to manage and adapt to stress and life challenges. Training programs that develop and/or enhance resilience may have efficacy in improving health, well...

    Authors: Aaron L Leppin, Michael R Gionfriddo, Amit Sood, Victor M Montori, Patricia J Erwin, Claudia Zeballos-Palacios, Pavithra R Bora, Megan M Dulohery, Juan Pablo Brito, Kasey R Boehmer and Jon C Tilburt

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:20

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  30. Content type: Protocol

    Pediatric injury is highly prevalent and has significant impact both physically and emotionally. The majority of pediatric injuries are treated in emergency departments (EDs), where treatment of physical injur...

    Authors: Jeffrey Odenbach, Amanda Newton, Rebecca Gokiert, Cathy Falconer, Craig Courchesne, Sandra Campbell and Sarah J Curtis

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:19

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  31. Content type: Research

    Identifying patients with increased risk of suicidal behaviors is a constant challenge and concern for clinicians caring for patients with psychiatric conditions. We conducted a systematic review to assess the...

    Authors: Shaista Malik, Amrit Kanwar, Leslie A Sim, Larry J Prokop, Zhen Wang, Khalid Benkhadra and Mohammad Hassan Murad

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:18

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  32. Content type: Protocol

    Eating out of the home has been associated with higher intakes of energy and fat and lower micronutrient intakes, as well as the development of obesity. Out-of-home food outlets (OHFOs) and the foods obtained ...

    Authors: Frances C Hillier-Brown, Helen J Moore, Amelia A Lake, Ashley J Adamson, Martin White, Jean Adams, Vera Araujo-Soares, Charles Abraham and Carolyn D Summerbell

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:17

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  33. Content type: Protocol

    Patients undergoing renal transplant procedures require multi-agent immunosuppressive regimens both short term (induction phase) and long term (maintenance phase) to minimize the risk of organ rejection. There...

    Authors: Brian Hutton, Lawrence Joseph, Fatemeh Yazdi, Jennifer Tetzlaff, Mona Hersi, Madzouka Kokolo, Nicolas Fergusson, Alexandria Bennett, Chieny Buenaventura, Dean Fergusson, Andrea Tricco, Sharon Strauss, David Moher and Greg Knoll

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:16

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  34. Content type: Protocol

    Bariatric surgery is the only weight-loss treatment available that results in both sustained weight loss and improvements of obesity-related comorbidities. Individuals who meet the eligibility criteria for bar...

    Authors: Timothy D Jackson, Rujun Zhang, Dresden Glockler, Jason Pennington, Jacinta I Reddigan, Ori D Rotstein, Janet Smylie, Laure Perrier and Lesley Gotlib Conn

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:15

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  35. Content type: Research

    Studies suggest that expectations powerfully shape clinical outcomes. For subjective outcomes in adequately blinded trials, health improvements are substantial and largely explained by non-specific factors.

    Authors: Frederik Feys, Geertruida E Bekkering, Kavita Singh and Dirk Devroey

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:14

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  36. Content type: Research

    Systematic reviews are a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine but are useful only if up-to-date. Methods for detecting signals of when a systematic review needs updating have face validity, but no proposed m...

    Authors: Paul G Shekelle, Aneesa Motala, Breanne Johnsen and Sydne J Newberry

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:13

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Systematic Reviews 2014 3:22

  37. Content type: Protocol

    The aims of antenatal education contain both outcomes related to pregnancy, birth and parenthood. Both content and methods of antenatal education have changed over time without evidence of effects on relevant ...

    Authors: Carina Sjöberg Brixval, Solveig Forberg Axelsen, Stig Krøger Andersen, Pernille Due and Vibeke Koushede

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:12

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  38. Content type: Protocol

    Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is the underlying infectious cause of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and other proliferative diseases; that is, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman disease. In regions with h...

    Authors: Eliane Rohner, Natascha Wyss, Sven Trelle, Sam M Mbulaiteye, Matthias Egger, Urban Novak, Marcel Zwahlen and Julia Bohlius

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:11

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  39. Content type: Protocol

    Exercise programmes are frequently advocated for the management of musculoskeletal disorders; however, adherence is an important pre-requisite for their success. The assessment of exercise adherence requires t...

    Authors: Melanie A Holden, Kirstie L Haywood, Tanzila A Potia, Melanie Gee and Sionnadh McLean

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:10

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  40. Content type: Protocol

    Over 850 million people worldwide and 200 million adults in Sub-Saharan Africa suffer from malnutrition. Countries most affected by HIV are also stricken by elevated rates of food insecurity and malnutrition. ...

    Authors: Maryline Sicotte, Étienne V Langlois, Joséphine Aho, Daniela Ziegler and Maria Victoria Zunzunegui

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:9

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  41. Content type: Reviewer acknowledgement

    A peer-reviewed journal would not survive without the generous time and insightful comments of the reviewers, whose efforts often go unrecognized. Systematic Reviews has been blessed by the support of highly-qual...

    Authors: Daniel Shanahan

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:6

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  42. Content type: Protocol

    Advances in surgical technique, prosthetic heart valve design, and anticoagulation have contributed to an overall improvement in morbidity and mortality in women with heart valve prostheses as well as increase...

    Authors: Claire M Lawley, Samantha J Lain, Charles S Algert, Jane B Ford, Gemma A Figtree and Christine L Roberts

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:8

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  43. Content type: Protocol

    Globally, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) is rising, posing a challenge to its control and appropriate management. Text messaging has become the most common mode of communication among a...

    Authors: Carole Lunny, Darlene Taylor, Jasmina Memetovic, Orion Wärje, Richard Lester, Tom Wong, Kendall Ho, Mark Gilbert and Gina Ogilvie

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:7

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  44. Content type: Protocol

    Depression is common in people with long term conditions (LTCs) and is associated with worse medical outcomes. Understanding the mechanisms underpinning this relationship could help predict who is at increased...

    Authors: Leanne Trick, Edward Watkins and Chris Dickens

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2014 3:5

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