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  1. Content type: Protocol

    Virtually all low- and middle-income countries are dependent on the World Health Organization’s Expanded Program on Immunization for delivery of vaccines to children. The Expanded Program on Immunization deliv...

    Authors: Shingai Machingaidze, Eva Rehfuess, Rüdiger von Kries, Gregory D Hussey and Charles S Wiysonge

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:106

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  2. Content type: Protocol

    Depression is common in people with chronic physical illness and is associated with worse medical outcomes. Cognitive behavioural therapy and problem-solving improve depression, although usually have small to ...

    Authors: Sarah Harris, Paul Farrand and Chris Dickens

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:105

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  3. Content type: Methodology

    Systematic reviews (SRs) can become outdated as new evidence emerges over time. Organizations that produce SRs need a surveillance method to determine when reviews are likely to require updating. This report d...

    Authors: Nadera Ahmadzai, Sydne J Newberry, Margaret A Maglione, Alexander Tsertsvadze, Mohammed T Ansari, Susanne Hempel, Aneesa Motala, Sophia Tsouros, Jennifer J Schneider Chafen, Roberta Shanman, David Moher and Paul G Shekelle

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:104

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  4. Content type: Protocol

    Dapagliflozin is a first-in-class oral sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. It is often used in combination with conventional anti-diabetic drugs such as metformin, glimepiride, and insulin in tr...

    Authors: Yu-nan Sun, Yi Zhou, Xi Chen, Wen-si Che and Siu-wai Leung

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:103

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  5. Content type: Protocol

    Although healthcare administrative data are commonly used for traumatic brain injury research, there is currently no consensus or consistency on using the International Classification of Diseases version 10 co...

    Authors: Vincy Chan, Pravheen Thurairajah and Angela Colantonio

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:102

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  6. Content type: Protocol

    Healthcare worker hand hygiene is thought to be one of the most important strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections, but compliance is generally poor. Hand hygiene improvement interventions must i...

    Authors: Jocelyn A Srigley, David Lightfoot, Geoff Fernie, Michael Gardam and Matthew P Muller

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:101

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  7. Content type: Protocol

    The essential clinical diagnostic components of brain death must include evidence for an established etiology capable of causing brain death, two independent clinical confirmations of the absence of all brains...

    Authors: Michaël Chassé, Peter Glen, Mary-Anne Doyle, Lauralyn McIntyre, Shane W English, Greg Knoll, Jean-François Lizé, Sam D Shemie, Claudio Martin, Alexis F Turgeon, François Lauzier and Dean A Fergusson

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:100

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  8. Content type: Protocol

    Somatoform-type disorders and functional medically unexplained symptoms are extremely common in primary care settings. These disorders, however, are consistently underdiagnosed and under-recognised which precl...

    Authors: Alexandra M Murray, Anne Toussaint, Astrid Althaus and Bernd Löwe

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:99

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  9. Content type: Protocol

    Accountability has center stage in the current post-Millennium Development Goals (MDG) debate. One of the effective strategies for building equitable health systems and providing quality health services is the...

    Authors: Elsbet Lodenstein, Marjolein Dieleman, Barend Gerretsen and Jacqueline EW Broerse

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:98

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  10. Content type: Methodology

    Google Translate offers free Web-based translation, but it is unknown whether its translation accuracy is sufficient to use in systematic reviews to mitigate concerns about language bias.

    Authors: Ethan M Balk, Mei Chung, Minghua L Chen, Lina Kong Win Chang and Thomas A Trikalinos

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:97

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  11. Content type: Protocol

    The prognostic accuracy of 1H (proton) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy has been assessed by a criticized study-based meta-analysis. An individual patient data met...

    Authors: Pieter LJ Degraeuwe, Gerald J Jaspers, Nicola J Robertson and Alfons GH Kessels

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:96

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  12. Content type: Research

    There is considerable unexplained heterogeneity in previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of patient decision aids on the accuracy of knowledge of outcome probabil...

    Authors: Stephen J Gentles, Dawn Stacey, Carol Bennett, Mohamad Alshurafa and Stephen D Walter

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:95

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  13. Content type: Commentary

    Cochrane systematic reviews have proven to be beneficial for decision making processes, both on a practitioner and a policy level, and there are current initiatives to extend the types of evidence used by them...

    Authors: Karin Hannes, Andrew Booth, Janet Harris and Jane Noyes

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:84

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  14. Content type: Research

    Post-marketing surveillance (PMS) may identify rare serious incidents or adverse events due to the long-term use of a medical device, which was not captured in the pre-market process. Percutaneous transluminal...

    Authors: Julie Polisena, Alan J Forster, Karen Cimon and Danielle Rabb

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:94

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  15. Content type: Protocol

    Three meta-analyses and one systematic review have been conducted on the question of whether self-collected specimens are as accurate as clinician-collected specimens for STI screening. However, these reviews ...

    Authors: Darlene Taylor, Carole Lunny, Tom Wong, Mark Gilbert, Neville Li, Richard Lester, Mel Krajden, Linda Hoang and Gina Ogilvie

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:93

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  16. Content type: Protocol

    Pediatric osteomyelitis is a bacterial infection of bones requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment using parenteral followed by enteral agents. Major complications of pediatric osteomyelitis include transition...

    Authors: Chelsey Grimbly, Jeff Odenbach, Ben Vandermeer, Sarah Forgie and Sarah Curtis

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:92

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  17. Content type: Research

    In 1996, shortly after the founding of The Cochrane Collaboration, leading figures in test evaluation research established a Methods Group to focus on the relatively new and rapidly evolving methods for the sy...

    Authors: Mariska MG Leeflang, Jonathan J Deeks, Yemisi Takwoingi and Petra Macaskill

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:82

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  18. Content type: Protocol

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a chronic disease, with fatal recurrences occurring in 5% to 9% of patients, yet it is also one of the best examples of preventable disease. Prognostic models that utilise multi...

    Authors: Joie Ensor, Richard D Riley, David Moore, Susan Bayliss, Sue Jowett and David A Fitzmaurice

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:91

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  19. Content type: Protocol

    The use of procedural sedation outside the operating theatre has increased in hospital settings and has gained popularity among non-anesthesiologists. Sedative agents used for procedural pain, although effecti...

    Authors: Siobhán McCoy, Abel Wakai, Carol Blackburn, Michael Barrett, Adrian Murphy, Maria Brenner, Philip Larkin, Gloria Crispino-O’Connell, Savithiri Ratnapalan and Ronan O’Sullivan

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:89

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  20. Content type: Protocol

    Numerous tools and items have been developed in all health areas to assess the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The Cochrane Collaboration (CC) released a new tool to assess bias in RCTs, b...

    Authors: Susan Armijo-Olivo, Jorge Fuentes, Todd Rogers, Lisa Hartling, Humam Saltaji and Greta G Cummings

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:88

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  21. Content type: Protocol

    Multimorbidity is increasingly prevalent but, aside from epidemiological work, the impact on associated provision of healthcare and/or education is little understood. For example, it is unclear how or why heal...

    Authors: Sarah Yardley, Elizabeth Cottrell and Joanne Protheroe

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:87

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  22. Content type: Protocol

    The concept of lung sounds conveying information regarding lung physiology has been used extensively in clinical practice, particularly with physical auscultation using a stethoscope. Advances in computer tech...

    Authors: Marc P Berry, Luigi Camporota and George Ntoumenopoulos

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:86

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  23. Content type: Commentary

    The Cochrane Collaboration was established in 1993, following the opening of the UK Cochrane Centre in 1992, at a time when searching for studies for inclusion in systematic reviews was not well-developed. Rev...

    Authors: Carol Lefebvre, Julie Glanville, L Susan Wieland, Bernadette Coles and Alison L Weightman

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:78

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  24. Content type: Protocol

    Racism is increasingly recognized as a key determinant of health. A growing body of epidemiological evidence shows strong associations between self-reported racism and poor health outcomes across diverse minor...

    Authors: Yin Paradies, Naomi Priest, Jehonathan Ben, Mandy Truong, Arpana Gupta, Alex Pieterse, Margaret Kelaher and Gilbert Gee

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:85

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  25. Content type: Commentary

    Cochrane Reviews are intended to help providers, practitioners and patients make informed decisions about health care. The goal of the Cochrane Applicability and Recommendation Methods Group (ARMG) is to devel...

    Authors: Miranda W Langendam, Elie A Akl, Philipp Dahm, Paul Glasziou, Gordon Guyatt and Holger J Schünemann

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:81

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  26. Content type: Methodology

    Methods for systematic reviews of the effects of health interventions have focused mainly on addressing the question of 'What works?’ or 'Is this intervention effective in achieving one or more specific outcom...

    Authors: Ian Shemilt, David McDaid, Kevin Marsh, Catherine Henderson, Evelina Bertranou, Jacqueline Mallander, Mike Drummond, Miranda Mugford and Luke Vale

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:83

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  27. Content type: Protocol

    Effective interventions to improve quality of life of cancer survivors are essential. Numerous randomized controlled trials have evaluated the effects of physical activity or psychosocial interventions on heal...

    Authors: Laurien M Buffart, Joeri Kalter, Mai JM Chinapaw, Martijn W Heymans, Neil K Aaronson, Kerry S Courneya, Paul B Jacobsen, Robert U Newton, Irma M Verdonck-de Leeuw and Johannes Brug

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:75

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  28. Content type: Research

    Systematic reviews are important for informing clinical practice and health policy. The aim of this study was to examine the bibliometrics of systematic reviews and to determine the amount of variance in citat...

    Authors: Pamela Royle, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Katharine Barnard and Norman Waugh

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:74

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  29. Content type: Protocol

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) causes progressive destruction of pancreatic beta cells leading to absolute insulin deficiency. Treatment of T1DM requires insulin, and some evidence suggests that longer acting...

    Authors: Andrea C Tricco, Huda M Ashoor, Charlene Soobiah, Brenda Hemmelgarn, David Moher, Brian Hutton, Catherine H Yu, Sumit R Majumdar and Sharon E Straus

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:73

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  30. Content type: Protocol

    Approximately 20,000 people have a transient ischemic attack (TIA) and 23,375 have a minor stroke in England each year. Fatigue, psychological and cognitive impairments are well documented post-stroke. Evidenc...

    Authors: Grace M Moran, Benjamin Fletcher, Melanie Calvert, Max G Feltham, Catherine Sackley and Tom Marshall

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:72

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  31. Content type: Methodology

    Prognosis research aims to identify factors associated with the course of health conditions. It is often challenging to judge the overall quality of research evidence in systematic reviews about prognosis due ...

    Authors: Anna Huguet, Jill A Hayden, Jennifer Stinson, Patrick J McGrath, Christine T Chambers, Michelle E Tougas and Lori Wozney

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:71

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  32. Content type: Protocol

    Non-cognitive behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia affect up to 90% of people with dementia during the disease course and result in distress, increased carer burden, high service utilization and ...

    Authors: Daksha Trivedi, Claire Goodman, Angela Dickinson, Heather Gage, Jennifer McLaughlin, Jill Manthorpe, Kunle Ashaye and Steve Iliffe

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:70

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  33. Content type: Commentary

    In 2011, The Institute of Medicine (IOM) identified a set of methodological standards to improve the validity, trustworthiness, and usefulness of systematic reviews. These standards, based on a mix of theoreti...

    Authors: Stephanie M Chang, Eric B Bass, Nancy Berkman, Timothy S Carey, Robert L Kane, Joseph Lau and Sara Ratichek

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:69

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  34. Content type: Protocol

    Infection occurs commonly among patients hospitalized after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and has been associated with increased intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay and an elevated risk of poor neu...

    Authors: Brittney NV Scott, Derek J Roberts, Helen Lee Robertson, Andreas H Kramer, Kevin B Laupland, Shalina S Ousman, Paul Kubes and David A Zygun

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:68

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  35. Content type: Protocol

    Opioids are prescribed frequently and increasingly for the management of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). Current systematic reviews have a number of limitations, leaving uncertainty with regard to the benefits...

    Authors: Jason W Busse, Stefan Schandelmaier, Mostafa Kamaleldin, Sandy Hsu, John J Riva, Per Olav Vandvik, Ludwig Tsoi, Tommy Lam, Shanil Ebrahim, Bradley Johnston, Lori Oliveri, Luis Montoya, Regina Kunz, Anna Malandrino, Neera Bhatnagar, Sohail M Mulla…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:66

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  36. Content type: Protocol

    Literature documents that immigrant women in Canada have a higher prevalence of postpartum depression symptomatology than Canadian-born women. There exists a need to synthesize information on the contextual fa...

    Authors: Gina MA Higginbottom, Myfanwy Morgan, Joyce O’Mahony, Yvonne Chiu, Deb Kocay, Mirande Alexandre, Joan Forgeron and Marilyn Young

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:65

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  37. Content type: Protocol

    The role of vitamin D in management of depression is unclear. Results from observational and emerging randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy of vitamin D in depression lack consistency ...

    Authors: Guowei Li, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Zainab Samaan, Shiyuan Zhang, Jonathan D Adachi, Alexandra Papaioannou and Lehana Thabane

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:64

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  38. Content type: Research

    Most patients who sustain mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have persistent symptoms at 1 week and 1 month after injury. This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of interventions initiated in acu...

    Authors: Jocelyn Gravel, Antonio D’Angelo, Benoit Carrière, Louis Crevier, Miriam H Beauchamp, Jean-Marc Chauny, Maggy Wassef and Nils Chaillet

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:63

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  39. Content type: Protocol

    The purpose of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) research group project is to establish an individual patient-level database from high quality studies of ONSD ultrasonography for the detection of raised i...

    Authors: Julie Dubourg, Mahmoud Messerer, Dimitrios Karakitsos, Venkatakrishna Rajajee, Erik Antonsen, Etienne Javouhey, Alessandro Cammarata, Michael Cotton, Roy Thomas Daniel, Carmelo Denaro, Emmanuel Douzinas, Clément Dubost, Moncef Berhouma, Behrouz Kassai, Muriel Rabilloud, Antonino Gullo…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:62

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  40. Content type: Protocol

    Health professionals and policymakers aspire to make healthcare decisions based on the entire relevant research evidence. This, however, can rarely be achieved because a considerable amount of research finding...

    Authors: Katharina Felicitas Mueller, Joerg J Meerpohl, Matthias Briel, Gerd Antes, Erik von Elm, Britta Lang, Viktoria Gloy, Edith Motschall, Guido Schwarzer and Dirk Bassler

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:60

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  41. Content type: Protocol

    Rehabilitation interventions are a key component of the services required by individuals with neurotrauma to recover or compensate for altered abilities and achieve optimal social participation. Primary studie...

    Authors: Marie-Eve Lamontagne, Cynthia Gagnon, Anne-Sophie Allaire and Luc Noreau

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:59

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  42. Content type: Protocol

    Despite strong indications that fatigue is the most common and debilitating symptom after traumatic brain injury, little is known about its frequency, natural history, or relation to other factors. The current...

    Authors: Tatyana Mollayeva, Tetyana Kendzerska, Shirin Mollayeva, Colin M Shapiro, Angela Colantonio and J David Cassidy

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:57

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  43. Content type: Protocol

    The evidence that higher levels of physical activity and/or lower levels of physical inactivity are associated with beneficial health-related outcomes stems mainly from observational studies. Findings from the...

    Authors: David Nunan, Kamal R Mahtani, Nia Roberts and Carl Heneghan

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:56

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