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  1. Content type: Protocol

    Botulinum toxin A is a commonly used biological medication in the field of facial plastic surgery. Currently, there are three distinct formulations of botulinum toxin A, each with their purported benefits and ...

    Authors: James P Bonaparte, David Ellis, Jason G Quinn, Mohammed T Ansari, Jessica Rabski and Shaun J Kilty

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:40

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  2. Content type: Protocol

    Late intestinal toxicity after radiotherapy (LITAR) not only limits the radiation dose, which subsequently leads to unfavorable clinical outcomes, but also significantly lowers the quality of life in an increa...

    Authors: Qiyuan Qin, Qingshan Huang, Qinghua Zhong, Xinjuan Fan, Dianke Chen and Lei Wang

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:39

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  3. Content type: Protocol

    Diagnosis of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) followed by curative resection or liver transplantation offers the best chance for long-term patient survival. Clinically, ultrasonography has suboptimal...

    Authors: Ting-Shuo Huang, Yu-Chiau Shyu, Robin Turner, Huang-Yang Chen and Pei-Jer Chen

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:37

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  4. Content type: Protocol

    Falls are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. Although numerous trials of falls prevention interventions have been completed, there is extensive variation in their intervention componen...

    Authors: Andrea C Tricco, Elise Cogo, Jayna Holroyd-Leduc, Kathryn M Sibley, Fabio Feldman, Gillian Kerr, Sumit R Majumdar, Susan Jaglal and Sharon E Straus

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:38

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  5. Content type: Research

    Systematic reviews provide a synthesis of evidence for practitioners, for clinical practice guideline developers, and for those designing and justifying primary research. Having an up-to-date and comprehensive...

    Authors: Elaine M Beller, Joyce Kee-Hsin Chen, Una Li-Hsiang Wang and Paul P Glasziou

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:36

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  6. Content type: Research

    The systematic review on which this paper is based provided evidence for the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care to update their guideline regarding screening for cervical cancer. In this article we ...

    Authors: Leslea Peirson, Donna Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna Ciliska and Rachel Warren

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:35

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  7. Content type: Protocol

    Selective publication of studies, which is commonly called publication bias, is widely recognized. Over the years a new nomenclature for other types of bias related to non-publication or distortion related to ...

    Authors: Katharina Felicitas Müller, Matthias Briel, Alexandra D’Amario, Jos Kleijnen, Ana Marusic, Elizabeth Wager, Gerd Antes, Erik von Elm, Britta Lang, Edith Motschall, Viktoria Gloy, Guido Schwarzer, Doug Altman, Joerg J Meerpohl and Dirk Bassler

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:34

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  8. Content type: Research

    There is currently only one clinically approved drug, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke. The RhoA pathway, including RhoA and its downstream effector Rho kinase (R...

    Authors: Hanna M Vesterinen, Gillian L Currie, Samantha Carter, Sarah Mee, Ralf Watzlawick, Kieren J Egan, Malcolm R Macleod and Emily S Sena

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:33

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  9. Content type: Research

    Cochrane reviews are one of the best known and most trusted sources of evidence-based information in health care. While steps have been taken to make Cochrane intervention reviews accessible to a diverse reade...

    Authors: Zhivko Zhelev, Ruth Garside and Christopher Hyde

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:32

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  10. Content type: Research

    Fear of crime is associated with negative health and wellbeing outcomes, and may mediate some impacts of the built environment on public health. A range of environmental interventions have been hypothesized to...

    Authors: Theo Lorenc, Mark Petticrew, Margaret Whitehead, David Neary, Stephen Clayton, Kath Wright, Hilary Thomson, Steven Cummins, Amanda Sowden and Adrian Renton

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:30

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  11. Content type: Protocol

    Successful chronic care self-management requires adherence to healthy lifestyle behaviors, but many healthcare-based health promotion interventions have resulted in small and unsustainable changes in patient b...

    Authors: Amy E Bodde, Nathan D Shippee, Carl R May, Frances S Mair, Patricia J Erwin, M Hassan Murad and Victor M Montori

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:29

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  12. Content type: Protocol

    Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and associated risk factors for obesity are widening throughout developed countries worldwide. Tackling obesity is high on the public health agenda both in the United King...

    Authors: Clare L Bambra, Frances C Hillier, Helen J Moore, Joanne-Marie Cairns-Nagi and Carolyn D Summerbell

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:27

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  13. Content type: Protocol

    The aim of these reviews is to inform the design and content of interventions to reduce obesity in young children. The behaviors that are associated with obesity/overweight have been studied extensively; howev...

    Authors: Rajalakshmi Lakshman, Veena Mazarello Paes, Kathryn Hesketh, Claire O’Malley, Helen Moore, Ken Ong, Simon Griffin, Esther van Sluijs and Carolyn Summerbell

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:28

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  14. Content type: Research

    Ensuring high quality care for persons with diabetes remains a challenge for healthcare systems globally with consistent evidence of suboptimal care and outcomes. There is increasing interest in quality improv...

    Authors: Julia Worswick, S Carolyn Wayne, Rachel Bennett, Michelle Fiander, Alain Mayhew, Michelle C Weir, Katrina J Sullivan and Jeremy M Grimshaw

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:26

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  15. Content type: Protocol

    Pregabalin is used in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathic pain, partial seizures, anxiety disorders and fibromyalgia. Recognized adverse effects associated with its use include cognit...

    Authors: Joanne M Ho, Andrea C Tricco, Laure Perrier, Maggie Chen, David N Juurlink and Sharon E Straus

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:25

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  16. Content type: Protocol

    Meta-analyses are particularly vulnerable to the effects of publication bias. Despite methodologists’ best efforts to locate all evidence for a given topic the most comprehensive searches are likely to miss un...

    Authors: Christine Schmucker, Annette Bluemle, Matthias Briel, Susan Portalupi, Britta Lang, Edith Motschall, Guido Schwarzer, Dirk Bassler, Katharina F Mueller, Erik von Elm and Joerg J Meerpohl

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:24

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  17. Content type: Protocol

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of pre-clinical studies, in vivo animal experiments in particular, can influence clinical care. Publication bias is one of the major threats of validity in systematic reviews ...

    Authors: Matthias Briel, Katharina F Müller, Joerg J Meerpohl, Erik von Elm, Britta Lang, Edith Motschall, Viktoria Gloy, Francois Lamontagne, Guido Schwarzer and Dirk Bassler

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:23

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  18. Content type: Protocol

    Statins are known to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in primary and secondary prevention studies. Subsequently, a number of nonrandomised studies have shown statins improve clinical outcomes in p...

    Authors: Kwadwo Osei Bonsu, Amudha Kadirvelu and Daniel Diamond Reidpath

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:22

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  19. Content type: Protocol

    Systematic reviewers may encounter a multiplicity of outcome data in the reports of randomised controlled trials included in the review (for example, multiple measurement instruments measuring the same outcome...

    Authors: Matthew J Page, Joanne E McKenzie, Sally E Green and Andrew B Forbes

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:21

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  20. Content type: Protocol

    The arts are powerful, accessible forms of communication that have the potential to impart knowledge by attracting interest and developing meaningful connections. Knowledge translation aims to reduce the ‘evid...

    Authors: Shannon D Scott, Pamela Brett-MacLean, Mandy Archibald and Lisa Hartling

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:19

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  21. Content type: Protocol

    Fibromyalgia is associated with substantial socioeconomic loss and, despite considerable research including numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews, there exists uncertainty regardi...

    Authors: Jason W Busse, Shanil Ebrahim, Gaelan Connell, Eric A Coomes, Paul Bruno, Keshena Malik, David Torrance, Trung Ngo, Karin Kirmayr, Daniel Avrahami, John J Riva, Peter Struijs, David Brunarski, Stephen J Burnie, Frances LeBlanc, Ivan A Steenstra…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:18

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  22. Content type: Protocol

    Primary informal caregivers provide a substantial amount of the care and support for persons with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This review aims to investigate the association between the quality of life (QoL) of ...

    Authors: Afeez Abiola Hazzan, Jenny Ploeg, Harry Shannon, Parminder Raina and Mark Oremus

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:17

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  23. Content type: Protocol

    The benefits of aspirin as an anti-platelet agent are well established; however, there has been much debate about the lack of uniformity in the efficacy of aspirin to inhibit platelet function. In some patient...

    Authors: Smriti Raichand, David Moore, Richard D Riley, Marie Lordkipanidzé, Janine Dretzke, Jennifer O’Donnell, Sue Jowett, Sue Bayliss and David A Fitzmaurice

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:16

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  24. Content type: Protocol

    Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) groups in receipt of specialist mental health care have reported higher rates of detention under the mental health act, less use of psychological therapies, and more dissatisfac...

    Authors: Kamaldeep Bhui, Rosemarie McCabe, Scott Weich, Swaran Singh, Mark Johnson and Ala Szczepura

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:15

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  25. Content type: Protocol

    After a spinal cord injury, quality of life, as well as the determinants of quality of life, has been widely assessed. However, to date, there have been no systematic reviews on the impact of quality improveme...

    Authors: Sarah EP Munce, Laure Perrier, Andrea C Tricco, Sharon E Straus, Michael G Fehlings, Monika Kastner, Eunice Jang, Fiona Webster and Susan B Jaglal

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:14

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  26. Content type: Protocol

    Coronary computed tomography angiography has become the foremost noninvasive imaging modality of the coronary arteries and is used as an alternative to the reference standard, conventional coronary angiography...

    Authors: Georg M Schuetz, Peter Schlattmann, Stephan Achenbach, Matthew Budoff, Mario J Garcia, Robert Roehle, Gianluca Pontone, Willem Bob Meijboom, Daniele Andreini, Hatem Alkadhi, Lily Honoris, Nuno Bettencourt, Jörg Hausleiter, Sebastian Leschka, Bernhard L Gerber, Matthijs FL Meijs…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:13

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  27. Content type: Protocol

    One of the effective strategies for reducing the number of maternal deaths is delivery by a skilled birth attendant. Low utilization of skilled birth attendants has been attributed to delay in seeking care, de...

    Authors: Andrea Solnes Miltenburg, Yadira Roggeveen, Marianne van Elteren, Laura Shields, Joske Bunders, Jos van Roosmalen and Jelle Stekelenburg

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:11

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  28. Content type: Research

    Lung cancer is considered a terminal illness with a five-year survival rate of about 16%. Informed decision-making related to the management of a disease requires accurate prognosis of the disease with or with...

    Authors: Hesborn Wao, Rahul Mhaskar, Ambuj Kumar, Branko Miladinovic and Benjamin Djulbegovic

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:10

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  29. Content type: Protocol

    Improved life expectancy is resulting in increased outpatient treatment of people with chronic physical health conditions and reliance on the provision of informal care in the community. However, informal care...

    Authors: Joanne Woodford, Paul Farrand, David Richards and David J Llewellyn

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:9

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  30. Content type: Protocol

    Inflammatory bowel disease is an idiopathic chronic disease that affects around 28 million people worldwide. Symptoms are distressing and have a detrimental effect on patients’ quality of life. A possible link...

    Authors: Mariyana Schoultz, Iain Atherton, Gill Hubbard and Angus JM Watson

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:8

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  31. Content type: Methodology

    The Beta-Blockers in Heart Failure Collaborative Group (BB-HF) was formed to obtain and analyze individual patient data from the major randomized controlled trials of beta-blockers in heart failure. Even thoug...

    Authors: Dipak Kotecha, Luis Manzano, Douglas G Altman, Henry Krum, Guliz Erdem, Nicola Williams and Marcus D Flather

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:7

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  32. Content type: Research

    Many reports point to the beneficial effect of male partner involvement in programs for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in curbing pediatric HIV infections. This paper summarizes ...

    Authors: Frederick Morfaw, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Lehana Thabane, Clarissa Rodrigues, Ana-Paula Wunderlich, Philip Nana and John Kunda

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:5

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  33. Content type: Protocol

    In 2010, there were approximately 8.8 million incident cases of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. The treatment of TB is at least six months long and may be complicated by a high pill burden. In addition, TB patien...

    Authors: Mweete D Nglazi, Linda-Gail Bekker, Robin Wood, Gregory D Hussey and Charles S Wiysonge

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:6

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  34. Content type: Research

    PROSPERO, an international prospective register of systematic review protocols in health and social care, was launched in February 2011. After one year of operation we describe access and use, explore user exp...

    Authors: Alison Booth, Mike Clarke, Gordon Dooley, Davina Ghersi, David Moher, Mark Petticrew and Lesley Stewart

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:4

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  35. Content type: Research

    Problem alcohol use is common among illicit drug users and is associated with adverse health outcomes. It is also an important factor in poor prognosis among drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) as it impac...

    Authors: Jan Klimas, Catherine-Anne Field, Walter Cullen, Clodagh SM O’Gorman, Liam G Glynn, Eamon Keenan, Jean Saunders, Gerard Bury and Colum Dunne

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:3

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  36. Content type: Protocol

    Methodological research has found that non-published studies often have different results than those that are published, a phenomenon known as publication bias. When results are not published, or are published...

    Authors: Susan Portalupi, Erik von Elm, Christine Schmucker, Britta Lang, Edith Motschall, Guido Schwarzer, Isabel T Gross, Roberta W Scherer, Dirk Bassler and Joerg J Meerpohl

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:2

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  37. Content type: Research

    An automated dose dispensing (ADD) service has been implemented in primary healthcare in some European countries. In this service, regularly used medicines are machine-packed into unit-dose bags for each time ...

    Authors: Juha Sinnemäki, Sinikka Sihvo, Jaana Isojärvi, Marja Blom, Marja Airaksinen and Antti Mäntylä

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2013 2:1

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  38. Content type: Methodology

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) and self-management (SM) support programmes are effective in the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but these interventions are not widely i...

    Authors: Ratna Sohanpal, Richard Hooper, Rachel Hames, Stefan Priebe and Stephanie Taylor

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2012 1:66

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  39. Content type: Protocol

    Influenza is an acute respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses, which occurs in epidemics worldwide every year. Children are an important target for prevention methods, including vaccination. While evid...

    Authors: Gabriela J Prutsky, Juan Pablo Domecq, Tarig Elraiyah, Zhen Wang, Lisa A Grohskopf, Larry J Prokop, Victor M Montori and Mohammad Hassan Murad

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2012 1:65

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  40. Content type: Protocol

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the leading causes of disability and has a major socioeconomic impact. Despite a large amount of research in the field, there remains uncertainty about the best treatment approach...

    Authors: Jill A Hayden, Jennifer L Cartwright, Richard D Riley and Maurits W vanTulder

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2012 1:64

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  41. Content type: Protocol

    In patients undergoing open cardiothoracic and upper abdominal surgery, postoperative pulmonary complications remain an important cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality, impacting upon hospital length ...

    Authors: Christina M Mans, Julie C Reeve, Catherine A Gasparini and Mark R Elkins

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2012 1:63

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  42. Content type: Systematic review update

    The aim of this systematic review was to systematically assess the potential patient-relevant benefit (primary aim) and diagnostic and prognostic accuracy (secondary aim) of positron emission tomography (PET) ...

    Authors: Milly A Schröer-Günther, Robert F Wolff, Marie E Westwood, Fülöp J Scheibler, Christoph Schürmann, Brigitta G Baumert, Stefan Sauerland and Jos Kleijnen

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2012 1:62

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  43. Content type: Protocol

    Neuropathic pain can reduce the quality of life and independence of 30% to 50% of patients with diabetes. The comparative effectiveness of analgesics for patients with diabetic neuropathy remains unclear. The ...

    Authors: Marcio L Griebeler, Apostolos Tsapas, Juan P Brito, Zhen Wang, Olivia J Phung, Victor M Montori and M Hassan Murad

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2012 1:61

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  44. Content type: Research

    The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement is intended to facilitate better reporting of randomised clinical trials (RCTs). A systematic review recently published in the Cochrane Librar...

    Authors: Lucy Turner, Larissa Shamseer, Douglas G Altman, Kenneth F Schulz and David Moher

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2012 1:60

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  45. Content type: Protocol

    Setting priorities for the prevention and management of heart failure requires an empirical understanding of the pattern of disease burden. We aim to describe the methods for a systematic review of the literat...

    Authors: Derrick A Bennett, Thomas K Eliasz, Anna Forbes, Alastair Kiszely, Rajit Khosla, Tatjana Petrinic, Devarsetty Praveen, Roohi Shrivastava, Du Xin, Anushka Patel, Stephen MacMahon and Kazem Rahimi

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2012 1:59

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