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Table 2 Intervention characteristics

From: The effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions for socio-economically disadvantaged women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Theoretical framework and/or rationale Behavioural targets of intervention Intervention deliverer and training provided Intervention fidelity measures
Andrews et al. 2016 [48] Community-based participatory research approach and social ecological model Group: educational and behavioural strategies
Individual: social support with quitting and enhanced self-efficacy with cessation attempts
Group strategies: certified counsellors and neighbourhood tenant association
Individual: community health workers
Fidelity observation checklist for community health worker, peer group, neighbourhood, written materials, patches implemented
Bernstein et al. 2015 [47] Low-income smokers have limited access to GP services who undertreat smoking. ED visit opportunity for screening, intervention and referral Feedback, enhancement of self-efficacy, brief advice and treatment options given in non-judgemental, empathic fashion to improve self-reflection Interviews: research associates trained in motivational techniques
NRT: ED nurse
All interviews audio-recorded and reviewed weekly with research associates by psychologist
Collins et al. 2019 [49] Behavioural counselling suggests social continencies restrict residential smoking Identifying and managing urges to smoke and building support to protect children from TSE Clinical social workers and graduate students Training by doctoral-level experts in smoking cessation Audio-taped assessment interviews and counselling sessions. Supervision by smoking cessation experts included review of cases and fidelity to maintain >90% fidelity with intervention protocol
Curry et al. 2003 [50] The paediatric clinic as a ‘teachable setting’ in which to provide advice and assistance to parents who smoke Helping smokers articulate concerns about smoking and reasons for quitting. Motivational interviewing: aim to trigger decision and commitment to change through feedback, enhancing personal responsibility, advice and supporting self-confidence by using the success of others as encouragement, within a non-confrontational and empathic context. Motivational message from child’s clinician. Motivational interview and phone call from clinic nurse or study interventionist Regular review of the visit and call summary sheets by project director, biweekly supervision by telephone, and quarterly in-person lunch meetings
Etter et al. 2016 [51] Low-income smokers are hard to reach. Financial incentives should be high enough to compensate for tobacco withdrawal symptoms and loss of a valued activity. Rewarding sustained abstinence, rather than initial quit attempts Research assistants with no training in smoking cessation support Not stated
Gilbert et al. 2017 [46]* 1. Direct marketing and proactive recruitment (e.g. cold-calling) has potential as recruitment strategy for smokers.
2. Enhancing personal relevance can help tailor messages to the recipient (computer-tailoring)
3. 3Ts model (tension, trigger, treatment)–inform smoker of personal risk, promote confidence and provide helping relationship
Addresses lack of knowledge or inadequate information on available stop smoking services. Use of ‘why quit’ messages, hard-hitting messages about the consequences of tobacco use and ‘how to quit’ messages, supportive and positive and emphasising quitting resources Letters generated by a research assistant in each primary care practice Research assistants trained in RCT methods emphasising importance of standardising taster sessions, and delivering all protocol-specified content, while allowing for differences in the organisation of the individual Stop Smoking Services. Taster sessions were audio-recorded. Advisors completed a personal details form, gathering personal data and highest educational qualification, type of smoking cessation training, time since smoking cessation training, number of patients seen in the previous 6 months and job title to account for differences in ‘therapist effects’.
Glasgow et al. 2000 [52] Lower SES women have multiple barriers to participation in smoking interventions. Planned parenthood clinics many low-income women and are important setting Motivational interviewing and barrier-based counselling. Personalized strategies used based on readiness to quit and barriers to quitting Planned Parenthood clinical staff who received a 1-h training session Delivery of intervention components was measured and reported—no other details stated
Haas et al. 2015 [53] GPs do not have time or training to provide tobacco treatment.
1. Dissemination of electronic health records with smoking status data is tool to reach smokers.
2. Interactive voice response allows a computer to detect voice responses during a call and is efficient means to reach large population can be used to engage smokers by providing ink to tobacco specialist
Motivational interviewing techniques to help resolve ambivalence about behaviour change regardless of readiness-to-quit standard. Content tailored to the individual based on intent and confidence to quit. Participants could select optional modules based on needs (e.g. stress, weight gain, menthol use) Tobacco treatment specialist Not assessed
Manfredi et al. 2004 [54] Transtheoretical model of stages of change, social marketing, social learning and motivation theories, self-help for quitting strategies Improving motivation and readiness to quit smoking in addition to helping smokers ready to quit Clinical personnel Not stated
Solomon et al. 2000 [55] Focuses on low-income women of childbearing age where smoking prevalence is high and cessation resources are limited Encouragement, guidance and reinforcement for quitting smoking and helped women cope with high risk for smoking situations. They negotiated a schedule of contact Support person Brief quality control checks conducted by phone by research assistant with sample of group
Solomon et al. 2005 [56] Repeat of their 2000 study but provides longer and more intensive telephone contact to see if abstinence is improve at 6 months A semi-structured protocol designed to provide encouragement, guidance and reinforcement for quitting smoking, and to assist the woman in problem-solving high-risk-for-smoking situations. Support person who received periodic refresher training sessions and telephone contact to review and discuss protocol Support logs submitted to author for review each month. Quality control on 50% of participants to verify contact and ensure calls were well-received.