Skip to main content

Table 1 Study characteristics

From: The effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions for socio-economically disadvantaged women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Origin Study design Setting For women only? No. of women randomised (% total randomised) Tailored for low SES? Mean age, years Baseline cigarettes per day, mean Intervention condition Control condition Pharmaco-therapy offered to intervention group? Outcome Length of intervention ((post randomisation) Follow-up (post-randomisation) Bio-chemical verification SES measure
Andrews et al. 2016 [48] USA Two-group pragmatic cluster RCT Subsidised neighbourhoods Yes 409 (100%) Yes 42 12.7 Face-to-face individual, group support, NRT, neighbourhood anti-smoking activities Written materials NRT 7-day point prevalence 6 months 6 months, 12 months Yes Residence in public housing neighbourhood
Bernstein et al. 2015 [47] USA Two-group RCT Urban emergency department No 407 (52.2%) Yes No female only info No female only information Brief face-to-face motivational interviews, referral to phoneline, NRT Written materials and phone line number NRT 7-day point prevalence 3 months 3 months Yes Receipt of Medicaid or held no insurance
Collins et al. 2019 [49] USA Two-group RCT Paediatric primary care community clinics and community Yes 300 (100%) Yes 29.4 12.3 Face-to-face and phone motivational interviews, written material Brief advice, written material No 7-day point prevalence 4 months 4 months Yes Low-income, racial minority communities
Curry et al. 2003 [50] USA Two-group RCT Paediatric clinics serving ethnically diverse populations of low-income families Yes 303 (100%) Yes 34 12.1 Face-to-face motivational interviewing, telephone support, written material Usual care No 7-day point prevalence 3 months 3 months, 12 months No Ethnically diverse population of low-income families
Etter et al. 2016 [51] Switzerland Two-group RCT Low-income smokers in the general population No 415 (51.4%) Yes No female only info No female only information Signed ‘contract to quit’, social supporter designated (friend/family), written materials, website access and escalating financial incentives (gift cards) Written materials and website access No Continued abstinence between 6 and 18 months 6 months 6 months Yes Income ≤ 50,000 Swiss francs (CHF) ($55,000, single) or CHF ≤ 100,000 ($110,000, married).
Gilbert et al. 2017 [46]a England, UK Two-group RCT NHS Stop Smoking Services and general practices in England No Women in high deprivation1075 (24.5)
All women in RCT 2152 (49.1)
No All women in sample (not just low SES): 48.0 Not available Tailored, personalised letter from GP to attend ‘Come and Try It’ taster, repeated letter 3 months later Generic letter from GP advertising local Stop Smoking Service and available therapies No 7-day point prevalence Letter sent at start of study and reminder sent at 3 months 6 months Yes Index of Multiple Deprivation score (IMD), official measure of multiple deprivations at the small-area level.
Glasgow et al. 2000 [52] USA Two-group RCT 4 Planned Parenthood clinics Yes 1154 (100%) Yes 24 12 Brief behavioural support, clinician advice, written materials, telephone support. Written materials and advice No 30-day point prevalence 6 weeks 6 weeks, 6 months Yes Clinics serves low-income women
Haas et al. 2015 [53] USA Two-group RCT Primary care practices in the Greater Boston area (6 community health centres, 2 community-based practices, 4 hospital-based practices, and 1 medical home) No 482 (68.2%) Yes No female only information No female only information Motivational interviewing telephone support and NRT Usual care NRT 7-day point prevalence 1 ½ months 9 months No Residence in a low (<$45 000) or moderate ($45 000-$67 050) median household income census tract
Manfredi et al. 2004 [54] USA Two-group cluster RCT Prenatal, family planning and paediatric services in public health clinics in Chicago and two suburbs Yes 1068 (100%) Yes 29 11 Telephone support, reminder letter, posters, video, advice, written materials and signature on patient-provider agreement form. Advice, written materials, posters, video No 7-day point prevalent abstinence 5–8 weeks 2 months, 6 months, 12 months and 18 months No Attendance at public health clinic
Solomon et al. 2000 [55] USA Two-group RCT Community Yes 214 (100%) Yes 33 23.7 NRT, telephone support NRT NRT 7-day point prevalent abstinence 3 months 3 months and 6 months Yes Medicaid-eligible
Solomon et al. 2005 [56] USA Two-group RCT Community Yes 330 (100%) Yes 34.2 23.6 NRT, telephone support NRT NRT 7-day point prevalent abstinence 4 months 3 months and 6 months No Medicaid-eligible
  1. aData from Gilbert’s study is derived from information the author sent upon request. This was broken down by gender and the UK’s Multiple Deprivation Score. We use female-only data from IMD quintiles 4 and 5 only, areas classified as ‘high deprivation’