Skip to main content

Table 1 Applying the Health Stigma and Discrimination Framework to this review

From: Exploring stigma associated with mental health conditions and alcohol and other drug use among people from migrant and ethnic minority backgrounds: a protocol for a systematic review of qualitative studies

Domain Sub-domain Topic codes
Drivers and Facilitators Drivers • Fear
• Poor knowledge/awareness
• Prejudice
• Stereotypes
Facilitators • Social, gender, religious and cultural norms and beliefs which determine whether alcohol consumption or illicit drug use are acceptable in particular settings
• Laws and policies
Health condition related stigma Intersecting fields of stigma • Ethnicity, gender, sexual identity, citizenship status, socio-economic status, age, other health conditions
Stigma manifestations Experiences • Internalised stigma (people feeling shame and personally taking on the negative labels associated with AOD use and mental health conditions)
• Experienced stigma (verbal abuse, vilification)
• Anticipated stigma (expectation or fear of bias if others discover their AOD use or mental health condition)
• Secondary stigma (negative labels applied to family and friends)
• Experienced discrimination (unfair treatment or constrained opportunities)
Practices • Being stereotyped by members of the public or service providers
• Stigmatising behaviours (exclusion, avoidance, rejection, gossip)
• Discriminatory attitudes
• Expressions of prejudice
Outcomes Individual • Concealment or non-disclosure
• Increase in risk behaviours
• Limited ability to seek and obtain access to appropriate mental health and AOD services
• Informal help-seeking
• Resilience and advocacy through rejection of stereotypes
Organisations and institutions • Responses or interventions that can be implemented at an organisational or institutional level to address stigma
Impacts Impacts • Reduced quality of life
• Increased isolation and loneliness
• Decreased participation in employment and housing
• Increased contact with the criminal justice system
• Exacerbation of existing mental health conditions
• Increase in depression, anxiety and social isolation
• Long-term break down in relationships