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Table 2 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Patient engagement strategies for adults with chronic conditions: an evidence map

PICOTS Include Exclude
Population • Patients with chronic medical conditions
• Patient and family members of committees/councils aimed at improving care
• Subpopulations, including
 • Ethnic and racial minority
 • Limited language skills
 • Low literacy/low health literacy
 • Cognitive impairment
None
Interventions • Direct patient level interventions
• Practice, health system, and reimbursement interventions
• Models under alternative payment mechanisms
• Community-level interventions
• One-time education-only (e.g., providing a handout)
• Without 2-way interaction or ability for patient to ask questions (e.g., providing access to web-based educational program)
Comparators Any comparator (pre/post, concurrent) No comparison group
Outcomes  • Intermediate outcomes
(e.g., behavior change, cost, provider satisfaction, health system level changes)
 • Patient outcomes
(e.g., mortality, quality of life, utilization)
None
Timing All timing
 • Right after implementation strategy (within 3 months)
 • Longer follow-up
 
Setting All settings where self-management occurs (e.g., home/community/clinic/assisted living) Non-USA-based studies