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Table 3 Study description of all included studies

From: Communication strategies in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes in vulnerable groups: a scoping review

Study Study description
Bender MS, Cooper BA, Flowers E, Ma R, Arai S. Filipinos Fit and Trim - A feasible and efficacious DPP-based intervention trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications. 2018;12:76-84 *Attended 5 in-person intervention office visits
*Tracked real-time steps by wearing a fitbit zip on their torso at least 10 h/day
*Logged daily food/drink intake and weekly home weights on a mobile app/diary
*Received weekly postings of discussion topics (related to weight loss, pa and healthy eating) on the study’s private facebook group site to reinforce healthy behaviors learned during in-person intervention sessions
*Prior to receiving the intervention, participants were trained on how to (1) use the fitbit zip; download the mobile app/diary and (2) access and join the private facebook group. Participants’ fitbit data was monitored by research staff and uploaded in real-time to the study’s online account and secure data servers. Participants experiencing technological problems received remote assistance via phone.
Blanks SH, Treadwell H, Bazzell A, Graves W, Osaji O, Dean J, McLawhorn JT, Stroud JL: Community engaged lifestyle modification research: engaging diabetic and prediabetic African American women in community-based interventions. J Obes 2016, 2016:3609289 The curriculum includes the following sessions:
*Introduction to the healthy lifestyle program
*Nutrition and chronic disease
*Nutritional literacy/building nutritional competence
*Combating stress and emotional eating
*Strategies for health eating and exercise
*Partnering with your healthcare provider
*Celebrating your healthier family other resources and activities:
*Physical activity planning section
*Healthy eating recipe
*Separate youth focused curriculum which supplements the adult sessions
*Community Resource Guide
*Field trip/activity planner
Bolin JN, Ory MG, Wilson AD, Salge L. Diabetes education kiosks in a latino community. The Diabetes educator. 2013;39(2):204-12. Bilingual diosk modules:
*What is diabetes?
*Are you at risk for diabetes?
*Preventing diabetes
*High and low blood sugar
*Complications related to diabetes
*Healthy recipes
*Medications and daily management
*Meal planning
*Kids’ corner
*Signs and symptoms of diabetes
*Sick days, disasters, and special events
Borelli MR, Riden HE, Bang H, Schenker MB. Protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial to study the effectiveness of an obesity and diabetes intervention (PASOS) in an immigrant farmworker population. BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):849. The five steps intervention
*Drink water
*Eat fruits and vegetables
*Measure (food portions and weight)
*Share (information learned and healthy habits)
Examples of additionally voluntary activities:
*Cooking demonstrations
*Education on specific health topics
*Cultural celebrations with modified recipes
*Walking challenges, and Zumba dance sessions
*Use of the “Salud para su Corazon” curriculum ( bilingual program for promotors developed specifically for Latino communities)
Castro-Rivas E, Boutin-Foster C, Milan M, Kanna B. “Es como uno bomba de tiempo [It’s like a time bomb]”: a qualitative analysis of perceptions of diabetes among first-degree relatives of Latino patients with diabetes. Diabetes Spectrum. 2014;27(1):50-7. Proposal for intervention
*As involving community stakeholders and community engagement
*Identifying culturally relevant media
To deliver health messages is crucial
*Nontraditional venues such as schools, social clubs, and churches
*Modifying and enhancing the physical environment and investigating the excess density of unhealthy options must be addressed
Chang MW, Nitzke S, Brown R, Resnicow K. A community based prevention of weight gain intervention (Mothers In Motion) among young low-income overweight and obese mothers: design and rationale. BMC public health. 2014;14:280. Ig:
*Program for 16 weeks
*Culturally tailored dvds (~20 min, weekly from weeks 1–4, every second week from week 5–16) with 11 chapters for stress management, healthy nutrition, physical activity, and group teleconferences)
*Additionally weekly peer support group teleconferences for group discussions about the video’s content
*Printed materials from standard reliable sources for stress management, healthy eating and physical activity and a dvd about food and home safety (~10 min)
Fischer HHF, I.P.; Pereira, R.I.; Furniss, A.L.; Rozwadowski, J.M.; Moore, S.L.; Durfee, M.J.; Raghunath, S.G.;Tsai, A.G;, and Edward P. Havranek1: Text message support for weight loss in patients with prediabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Care 2016, 39:1364–1370. Intervention
*6 text messages per week (English or Spanish) relating to nutrition, physical activity, and motivation
* once-weekly text message asking participants to report their most recent weight.
*Motivational interviewing with a community health worker
*Possibility to join the control groups DPP
Fontil V, McDermott K, Tieu L, Rios C, Gibson E, Sweet CC, et al. Adaptation and feasibility study of a digital health program to prevent diabetes among low-income patients: results from a partnership between a Digital Health Company and an Academic Research Team. Journal of diabetes research. 2016;2016:8472391. *Previous examination of barriers via focus groups
*It support for the first use of the program, especially for people with low computer capabilities
*Informational event adapted to people with a low reading level
*Bilingual program (english/spanish)
*Telephone interviews during the whole program to find out further barriers
Ford AF, Reddick K, Browne MC, Robins A, Thomas SB, Crouse Quinn S. Beyond the cathedral: building trust to engage the African American community in health promotion and disease prevention. Health promotion practice. 2009;10(4):485-9. *Possible interventions: Health-coaches, examination of genetic family history, smoking cessation, fitness-courses, yoga, dancing, nutrition counseling, prevention of depression, aerobics, management of chronic diseases
Fukuoka Y, Vittinghoff E, Hooper J. A weight loss intervention using a commercial mobile application in Latino Americans-Adelgaza Trial. Translational Behavioral Medicine. 2018;8(5):714-23. *Two brief in-person counseling sessions, daily use of Fitbit Zip (3-axis accelerometer) and Fitbit app, and social media (Facebook)
*During the 8-week intervention period, participants were asked to log all food/drinks and calories every day and their weight into the Fitbit app, sync daily steps data that were stored in a Fitbit Zip with the Fitbit app, and interact on Facebook
Gary-Webb TL, Walker EA, Realmuto L, Kamler A, Lukin J, Tyson W, et al. Translation of the National Diabetes Prevention Program to Engage Men in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods in New York City: a description of power up for health. American journal of men's health. 2018:1557988318758788. *Provided incentive of 6-month parks membership and small incentives throughout to increase motivation, including t-shirts, water bottle, pedometer
*Provided $15 for completing baseline and follow-up surveys
*Coaches were role-models (black and/or latino, only men) for participants: either through modeling weight loss efforts or professional expertise in health education or fitness training
*Statistics on erectile dysfunction and diabetes incorporated in “quick facts” section
*Intervention sessions conducted within park and recreations sites that were accessible to participants’ neighborhood and had exercise resources that could help men adhere to physical activity component of the program
*Revised curriculum to incorporate photos, examples, and quotes that would appeal to men
Gutierrez J, Devia C, Weiss L, Chantarat T, Ruddock C, Linnell J, et al. Health, community, and spirituality: evaluation of a multicultural faith-based diabetes prevention program. The Diabetes educator. 2014;40(2):214-22. *FFF includes nutrition education and fitness activities while incorporating Bible-based teachings that encourage healthy lifestyles.
*Participants reported statistically significant improvements in knowledge and healthy behaviors from baseline. Statistically significant numbers reported that they ate less fast food and were less likely to overeat at follow-up
*FFF demonstrates the potential of faith-based health interventions to address obesity and diabetes risk in high-need communities of color.
Hall D, Lattie E, McCalla J, Saab P. Translation of the diabetes prevention program to ethnic communities in the United States. Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health. 2016;18(2):479-89. Afro-Americans
*Offered sessions in baptist churches
*Material for the intervention was tailored to group discussions, some questions were complemented to evoke the discussion
*Praying at the beginning of every session
*Bilingual personnel (trainers, diet assistants, educators)
*Realization of the program took place in the environment of the latino participants
*Information materials were tailored to a low level of health literacy and focused on visualizations (“nutritional traffic light”)
Arab Americans
*Bilingual personnel (trainers, diet assistants, educators)
*Offered pre-interventional education program
*Previous focus groups to identify relevant points for the adaption of the program (pa and educational sessions separated in gender, motivating men to participate in meal preparation, including religion)
*Every session starts with an Arab wisdom
*Cooking lessons are tailored to Arab food
*Groups (n=10–12) instead of single sessions
*Bilingual information
Handley MA, Harleman E, Gonzalez-Mendez E, Stotland NE, Althavale P, Fisher L, et al. Applying the COM-B model to creation of an IT-enabled health coaching and resource linkage program for low-income Latina moms with recent gestational diabetes: the STAR MAMA program. Implementation science : IS. 2016;11(1):73. Combination of a health literacy-tailored health IT tool for reaching ethnic minority patients with diabetes and DPP content
5 DPP topics in Spanish and English
*Physical Activity
*Mental Health and Stress
*Weight Loss
*Glucose Screening Postpartum
Harvey I, Schulz A, Israel B, Sand S, Myrie D, Lockett M, et al. The Healthy Connections project: a community-based participatory research project involving women at risk for diabetes and hypertension. Progress in community health partnerships : research, education, and action. 2009;3(4):287-300. *“Healthy Connections Advocates” provided screening through House Parties and shared health information and practical support with members of their social networks
Kato S, Ando M, Kondo T, Yoshida Y, Honda H, Maruyama S. Lifestyle intervention using Internet of Things (IoT) for the elderly: a study protocol for a randomized control trial (the BEST-LIFE study). Nagoya J Med Sci. 2018;80(2):175-82. *Devices loading Internet of things (activity meter, blood pressure (BP) monitor, body weight (BW) scale), Public health nurse guidance by phone, exercise movie
*Patients were provided with smartphones programmed with the study-specific application, Bluetooth-enabled activity trackers, Bluetooth-enabled BP monitors, and Bluetooth-enabled BW scales. The measurements recorded in the activity meters, BW scales, and sphygmomanometer will be automatically collected and stored via the Internet
*A movie filming a model of optimal exercise will be weekly delivered. It will be changed to step-up/step-down depending on the amount of physical activity in the previous week
*Lifestyle guidance was provided by a public health nurse (call center) via a telephone call once a month, and concomitantly, each participant’s behavior modification stage was surveyed
Kim SE, Castro Sweet CM, Gibson E, Madero EN, Rubino B, Morrison J, et al. Evaluation of a digital diabetes prevention program adapted for the Medicaid population: study design and methods for a non-randomized, controlled trial. Contemp Clin Trials Commun. 2018;10:161-8. *Digital intensive lifestyle intervention based on DPP that includes virtual group support, personalized health coaching, weekly lessons, and digital tracking tools
*Participants are placed into small virtual groups with peers
*Each group has a private online social network where they can discuss goals, challenges, progress, and provide social support to one another at any time, similar to a private chat board or discussion board.
*Users asynchronously complete weekly health education lessons each week. The lessons are available on the digital platform and can be accessed through internet or smartphone.
*User communicates with their health coach and receives individualized counseling through private messaging on the platform; coaches also facilitate discussions on the group chat board
*Users track meals using digital online tracking tools, track weight loss and physical activity using a wireless weight scale and pedometer, and monitor their engagement and weight loss progress.
Newton RL, Jr., Johnson WD, Larrivee S, Hendrick C, Harris M, Johannsen NM, et al. A randomized community-based exercise training trial in African American men: ARTIIS. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2019. *Exercise training intervention for 5 months consisting of 150 min of moderate intensity aerobic activity and two days of resistance training per week, consistent with the current federal physical activity guidelines
Nicolaou M, Vlaar E, van Valkengoed I, Middelkoop B, Stronks K, Nierkens V. Development of a diabetes prevention program for Surinamese South Asians in the Netherlands. Health promotion international. 2013;29(4):680-91. *Components of DH!AAN intervention focus on improving diet and physical activity, risk perception of the disease, social contexts regarding to support by family and friends, the generation of positive attitudes towards healthy versions of traditional behavior and food and the development of skills like cooking.
*Use of an information folder using a “Bollywood” theme: Photos of South Asian individuals, examples and tips on healthy eating using traditional foods, items on yoga, testimonials on healthy eating from a local man and stories about weight loss practices from Bollywood stars.
*Integration of basic and specific cultural elements (eating/cooking habits, influence of social environment)
Ruggiero LO, S; Choi, J.K: Community-based translation of the diabetes prevention program’s lifestyle intervention in an underserved Latino population. The Diabetes EDUCATOR 2011, 37(4):564-672. *Regular community advisory board meetings, inclusion of community members as project staff and interventionists (i.e., chws), and hosting community forums
*Program was further tailored and enhanced for this latino community by providing culturally specific information on diabetes risk and providing culturally relevant and language-appropriate program and supplemental educational material
*Implementation of the groups was designed to minimize the impact of barriers to participation, such as education and literacy levels, language, income, transportation, and lack of medical coverage
*To address language and literacy barriers, the group sessions were conducted in spanish, and all participant program materials were provided in spanish
*In addition to receiving program session materials, participants were provided with supplemental culturally appropriate educational materials (e.g., recipe book, national diabetes education program materials), self-monitoring tools (e.g., personalized weight chart), a pedometer, a body weight scale, and measuring cups
Siddiqui F, Koivula RW, Kurbasic A, Lindblad U, Nilsson PM, Bennet L. Physical activity in a randomized culturally adapted lifestyle intervention. Am J Prev Med. 2018;55(2):187-96. *In addition to the verbal instructions by an Arabic-speaking nurse, participants were also provided with written instructions. Participants were instructed to wear the device continuously for a total of 10 complete days
*The intervention was composed of seven group sessions, including one cooking class, and addressed self-empowerment, cultural and social barriers to lifestyle change, diet, and PA habits
*Health coaches organized and led the sessions, but participants were encouraged to actively participate in the discussions
*Participants were asked to identify barriers to being physically active and to develop an action plan for overcoming such obstacles. They were motivated to incorporate PA in daily life, such as walking or using stairs instead of riding a bus or taking the elevator
*Gender differences and cultural barriers to PA were discussed
*Participants received information on available PA centers, including a “women only” swimming hall, and gyms in the area
*Participants were offered financial assistance to buy shoes and clothing for PA or admission to a PA center
Vincent D, McEwen MM, Hepworth JT, Stump CS. The effects of a community-based, culturally tailored diabetes prevention intervention for high-risk adults of Mexican descent. The Diabetes educator. 2014;40(2):202-13. IG
Culturally tailored messages for promoting healthful eating and for increasing physical activity. Cultural tailoring included using an educational fotonovela (story with photographs and small dialogue bubbles), offering the intervention and all materials in Spanish and English, using culturally acceptable exercise strategies (e.g., walking, dancing), providing cooking demonstrations of low-fat traditional Mexican American foods, and facilitating group meal sharing.
Educational sessions giving general information on health promotion and disease prevention.
Walker EA, Weiss L, Gary-Webb TL, Realmuto L, Kamler A, Ravenell J, et al. Power up for health: pilot study outcomes of a diabetes prevention program for men from disadvantaged neighborhoods. American Journal of men’s health. 2018;12(4):989-97. *Curriculum adapted to better engage men from disadvantaged, urban neighborhoods. Modifications to the ndpp curriculum were made by the research team in an iterative manner under the guidance of an advisory panel of experts in men’s health promotion, male community leaders, and the power up for health coaches
*Curriculum was facilitated by male lifestyle coaches who had received training as an ndpp coach and also trained in the delivery of the power up for health curriculum
*If participating men missed a session, however, by protocol the coaches proactively offered a telephone make-up of that session to each participant to be done after they received the session materials by email or by mail from study staff. These telephone make-up sessions were delivered as individual topic sessions (i.e., not multiple missed sessions grouped in one phone call) and independent of the in-person sessions
Whittemore R, Rosenberg A, Gilmore L, Withey M, Breault A. implementation of a diabetes prevention program in public housing communities. Public Health Nursing. 2014;31(4):317-26. *Homecare nurses delivered an ADPP at public housing communities to adults at-risk for T2DM
*DPP was adapted after focus groups with stakeholders and residents of the community
  1. ADPP adapted Diabetes Prevention Program, BP blood pressure, BW body weight, CHW community health worker, CG control group, DPP Diabetes Prevention Program, IG intervention group, LSES low socioeconomic status, NDPP National Diabetes Prevention Program, PA physical activity, TA technical approach, RCT randomized controlled trial