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Table 1 Study design and characteristics of included patients according to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker prescription

From: Meta-analysis of the association between angiotensin pathway inhibitors and COVID-19 severity and mortality

Study Country Study design Characteristics of people prescribed ARBs/ACEI (n = 8389) Characteristics of people not prescribed ARBs/ACEI (n = 20989)
N Age Males HTN DM IHD CCF CKD COPD N Age Males HTN DM IHD CCF CKD COPD
Feng et al. (2020) [39] China Retrospective cohort 33 NR NR 33 (100%) NR NR NR NR NR 443 NR NR 80 (18%) NR NR NR NR NR
Gao et al. (2020) [40] China Retrospective cohort 183 63 (SD 11) 104 (57%) 183 (100%) 55 (28%) 32 (16%) 1 (1%) 2 (1%) 1 (1%) 2694 NR 1366 (51%) 667 (25%) 332 (12%) 201 (7%) 22 (1%) 27 (1%) 30 (1%)
Guo et al. (2020) [41] China Retrospective cohort 19 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 168 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
Hu et al. (2020) [42] China Retrospective cohort 65 56 (48–64) 40 (62%) 65 (100%) 16 (25%) 2 (3%) 4 (6%) 1 (2%) 819 NR 415 (51%) 84 (10%) 49 (6%) 13 (2%)   
Huang et al. (2020) [19] China Retrospective cohort 20 53 (SD 13) 10 (50%) 20 (100%) 0 0 NR NR 1 (5%) 30 67 (SD 13) 17 (57%) 30 (100%) 4 (13%) 1 (3%) NR NR 0
Li & Wang et al. (2020) [43] China Retrospective cohort 115 65 (57–73) 68 59%) 115 (100%) 42 (37%) 27 (24%) 5 (4%) 13 (11%) 8 (7%) 247 67 (60–75) 121 (49%) 247 (100%) 85 (34%) 35 (14%) 5 (2%) 22 (9%) 10 (4%)
Li & Xu et al. (2020) [32] China Ambispective cohort 42 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 506 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
Meng et al. (2020) [20] China Retrospective cohort 17 64 (56–69) 8 (47%) 17 (100%) 2 (12%) 2 (12%) NR NR NR 25 65 (55–68) 15 (60%) 25 (100%) 4 (16%) 6 (24%) NR NR NR
Tan et al. (2020) [44] China Retrospective cohort 31 67 (62–70) NR 31 (100%) 8 (26%) 5 (16%) NR 4 (13%) 2 (6%) 69 68 (57–71) NR 69 (100%) 20 (29%) 13 (19%) NR 5 (7%) 7 (10%)
Wang et al. (2020) [33] China Retrospective cohort 62 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 282 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
Yang et al. (2020) [24] China Retrospective cohort 43 65 (57–72) 21 (49%) 43 (100%) 13 (30%) 7 (16%) 0 3 (7%) 208 NR 102 (49%) 83 (40%) 42 (20%) 28 (13%)   
Zhang et al. (2020) [31] China Retrospective cohort 188 64 (55–68) 100 (53%) 188 (100%) 44 (23%) 29 (15%)   7 (4%) 1 (1%) 940 64 (57–69) 503 (54%) 940 (100%) 118 (13%) 56 (6%) NR 19 (2%) 3 (0%)
Zhou et al. (2020) [45] China Retrospective cohort 15 59 (SD 10) 9 (60%) 15 (100%) NR NR NR NR NR 95 NR 51 (54%) 21 (22%) NR NR NR NR NR
Fosbol et al. (2020) [25] Denmark Retrospective cohort 895 73 (61–81) 493 (55%) 634 (71%) 217 (24%) 193 (21%) 131 (15%) 67 (7%) 171 (19%) 3585 50 (37–65) 1651 (46%) 209 (6%) 194 (5%) 186 (5%) 112 (3%) 105 (3%) 463 (13%)
Liabeuf et al. (2020) [26] France Retrospective cohort 96 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 172 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
Cannata et al. (2020) [27] Italy Prospective cohort 173# NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 224 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
Conversano et al. (2020) [46] Italy Retrospective cohort 68 NR NR 68 (100%) NR NR NR NR NR 123 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
Felice et al. (2020) [21] Italy Retrospective cohort 82 NR 59 (72%) 82 (100%) 20 (24%) 29 (35%) NR 7 (9%) 51 76 (SD 12) 27 (53%) 51 (100%) 14 (28%) 27 (53%)   
Mancia et al. (2020) [47] Italy Retrospective cohort 2896 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 3376 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
Tedeschi et al. (2020) [22] Italy Prospective cohort 175 NR 133 (76%) 175 (100%) 37 (21%) 71 (41%) NR NR 19 (11%) 136 NR 92 (68%) 136 (100%) 37 (27%) 60 (44%) NR NR 30 (22%)
Jung et al. (2020) [23] Korea Retrospective cohort 377 NR NR 348 (92%) NR NR NR NR NR 1577 NR NR 194 (12%) NR NR NR NR NR
de Abajo et al. (2020) [48] Spain Retrospective cohort 477 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 662 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
Bean at al. (2020) [49] UK Prospective cohort 399 73 (SD 13) 231 (58%) 339 (85%) 215 (54%) 83 (21%) 65 (16%) 108 (27%) 42 (11%) 801 65 (SD 18) 455 (57%) 306 (38%) 203 (25%) 77 (10%) 42 (5%) 98 (12%) 79 (10%)
Mehta et al. (2020) [28] USA Retrospective cohort 212 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 1523 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
Reynolds et al. (2020) [29] USA Retrospective study 1293 NR NR 1293 (100%) NR NR NR NR NR 1280 NR NR 1280
(100%)
NR NR NR NR NR
Richardson et al. (2020) [30] USA Prospective cohort 413# NR NR 413 (100%) NR NR NR NR NR 953 NR NR 953
(100%)
NR NR NR NR NR
Weighted mean/% 70 58% 92% 30% 21% 14% 10% 12% - 56 50% 39% 11% 7% 3% 3% 7%
  1. Legend: Data are presented as number/total (percentage) or median (interquartile range) except where highlighted as mean (± SD). All values were rounded to the nearest integer. NR not reported, UK United Kingdom, USA United States of America. N number, ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin-2 receptor blocker, HTN hypertension, DM diabetes mellitus, IHD ischemic heart disease/coronary artery disease, CCF congestive cardiac failure, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CKD chronic kidney disease. The weighted average age was calculated using the average median or mean age reported in studies. In Li and Wang et al., outcomes were only reported for people with hypertension prescribed ACEI/ARB and as the use of ACEI/ARB could not be excluded in people without hypertension. In Liabeuf et al., a total of 499 local patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and of these, 231 were not hospitalised. In Jung et al., amongst the 5179 patients with COVID-19, hospitalisation was observed for 1954 people and outcome data was only available for the hospitalised patients (38%). In Richardson et al., clinical data was available only for 46.2% of admitted patients and medication data was only available for (92%) of the included patients. In Reynolds et al. the pre-matching data was used and in Mehta et al. pre-matched data was unavailable. In Jung et al., only clinical outcome data for 1954 hospitalised patients were included. #In Cannata et al, 56 out of 173 continued ACEI/ARB use and 117 discontinued at admission, and for Richardson et al., 227 out of 413 continued ACEI/ARB use during hospital admission. In Gao et al., 17/2694 were prescribed an ACEI/ARB but as outcome data was not available leave-one-out sensitivity analysis performed