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Table 1 Examples of Author framing of disadvantage from preliminary search

From: Enrollment, retention, and strategies for including disadvantaged populations in randomized controlled trials: a systematic review protocol

Article PROGRESS-Plus category Author’s framing of disadvantage
Apter et al. [33] Socioeconomic status “Asthma disproportionately affects low-income and minority adults, particularly African and Puerto Rican Americans.”
Breitkopf et al. [34] Race/ethnicity/culture/language “Approaches that target low-income and minority women are especially important, as socioeconomically disadvantaged and minority women bear a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer morbidity and mortality.”
Zoellner et al. [35] Place of residence “The Talking Health trial was developed to address these gaps in the literature and to target needs of the medically-underserved Appalachian region of rural southwest Virginia... There are also notable socioeconomic (median income, percent population below poverty, educational achievement, etc.) and literacy proficiency disparities within this region, as compared to state and national averages.”