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Table 2 Experimental and quasi-experimental study designs

From: Establishing the effectiveness of technology-enabled dementia education for health and social care practitioners: a systematic review

Classification Category Study design Definition
Experimental 1 Randomised trials An experimental study in which individuals or groups are allocated to different interventions using methods that are random.
Quasi-experimental 2 Interrupted time-series designs A study that uses observation at multiple (at least three) time points before and after an intervention.
3 Controlled before-after studies A study in which observations are made before and after the implementation of an intervention, both in a group that receives the intervention and in a control group that does not.
4 Non-randomised studies A study in which people are allocated to different interventions using methods that are not random.
5 Before-after studies A study in which observations are made before and after the implementation of an intervention in the same group of individuals.
5 Repeated measure studies A before-after study in which there are multiple post-intervention time points at which outcome measurements are made [40].
  1. Category 1 studies are considered to be the most robust, and category 5 studies the least robust, in terms of establishing causality. Hierarchies of quasi-experimental studies informed by Harris et al. [41]. Definitions of study designs were adapted from Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) guidance [36] unless otherwise indicated