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Table 2 Determinants of inequality in the utilization and provision of dental services in OECD countries

From: Inequalities in utilization and provision of dental services: a scoping review

Main themes Sub-themes Sub-sub themes Number of articles
Utilization of services
Individual determinants Demographic determinants Gender 18
Race and ethnicity 25
Nationality/mother nationality 4
Age 42
Marital status 3
Self-rated health status Functional abilities 4
Quality of life 3
Special health needs/minorities 3
Oral health status 10
Disease and health status 8
Social determinants Social status Residential location 20
Vulnerable groups 9
Population density 1
Occupation/employment 5
Immigrant and refugees 11
Literacy Education level 32
Health literacy 4
Economic determinants Micro-economic Income 58
Wealth 7
Poverty 11
Macro-economic Macro-economic crisis/condition 5
Macroeconomic revenue collection 1
Gini index 5
GDP per capita/country revenue 2
Economic disparities 4
Cultural determinants Macro cultural factors Time and technology 9
Environmental condition 1
Micro cultural factors Oral health behavior 6
Primary language spoken (fluency) 5
Lifestyle 6
Attitude 8
Provision of services
Health policy Policy implementation Appropriate policies 7
Target population concentration 1
National interventions 8
Policy formulation Health basic insurance/public insurance 13
Supplementary insurance 35
Private insurance 5
Cardholder status 2
Availability of services Type of available services Advice services/regular visiting pattern 10
Emergency visits 7
Service coverage 4
Specialized services 8
Preventive care 13
Pharmacists consultation 1
School dental nurses and dental hygienists 1
Distribution of services Geographic location/dentist distribution 15
Distribution of dental schools 3
Management of services Inadequate private services 1
Waiting time in public sector 2
Cost of service 11
Service satisfaction 1
Dentists recall and follow-up 2