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Table 3 Subgroup analysis of adipose tissue derived stem cells on motor function recovery after spinal cord injury

From: Efficacy of adipose tissue-derived stem cells in locomotion recovery after spinal cord injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis on animal studies

Subgroup Number of experiments Heterogeneity (p value) SMD (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
Injury model
 Contusion/compression 14 71.1% (< 0.0001) 1.65 (1.152.15)  < 0.0001 Ref
 Crush 2 71.9% (< 0.0001) 1.19 (0.322.06) 0.008 0.61 (0.14–2.64) 0.481
 Hemisection 3 72.0% (< 0.0001) 4.45 (1.337.57) 0.005 6.26 (0.94–41.65) 0.306
Severity of SCI
 Moderate 11 77.3% (p < 0.0001) 1.42 (0.91–1.94)  < 0.0001 Ref
 Sever 8 48.8% (p = 0.057) 2.23 (1.55–2.91)  < 0.0001 2.30 (0.76–6.93) 0.129
Treatment phase
 Immediate and acute 10 64.7% (p = 0.003) 1.89 (1.38–2.40)  < 0.0001 Ref
 Sub-acute 9 73.8% (p < 0.0001) 1.50 (0.82–2.18)  < 0.0001 0.61 (0.20–1.85) 0.362
Injury location
 Thoracic 11 72.3% (< 0.0001) 1.81 (1.28–2.33)  < 0.0001 Ref
 Thoracolumbar and lumbar 8 70.9% (0.001) 1.29 (0.85–2.32)  < 0.0001 0.76 (0.24–2.42) 0.620
Number of transplanted cell
  ≤ 5.0 × 105 6 75.4% (0.001) 2.14 (1.07–3.20)  < 0.0001 Ref
 5.1 × 105 to 1.0 × 106 6 28.1% (0.224) 1.91 (1.55–2.26)  < 0.0001 1.10 (0.25–4.72) 0.890
  > 1.0 × 106 5 75.0% (0.003) 1.17 (0.14–2.19) 0.026 0.40 (0.09–1.97) 0.237
Route of administration
 Intraspinal/intrathecal 14 57.0% (0.004) 1.89 (1.46–2.32)  < 0.0001 Ref
 Intravenous 5 86.7% (< 0.0001) 1.18 (0.11–2.25) 0.031 0.43 (0.13–1.35) 0.138
Type of graft
 Allograft 11 62.5% (0.003) 1.64 (1.22–2.05)  < 0.0001 Ref
 Xenograft 7 80.7% (< 0.0001) 1.91 (0.86–2.95)  < 0.0001 1.40 (0.44–4.41) 0.542
 Autograft 1 NA NA NA NA NA
Follow-up duration
 3–4 weeks 7 72.7% (0.001) 1.78 (1.12–2.44)  < 0.0001 Ref
 5–7 weeks 6 75.0% (0.007) 1.46 (0.51–2.41) 0.003 0.65 (0.13–3.19) 0.573
 8–13 weeks 7 74.4% (< 0.0001) 1.85 (1.04–2.65)  < 0.0001 0.93 (0.23–3.69) 0.911
Risk of bias
 Low risk 1 NA NA NA NA NA
 Some concern 10 64.6% (0.003) 2.02 (1.43–2.61)  < 0.001 Ref
 High risk 8 75.9 (< 0.001) 1.28 (0.66–1.90)  < 0.001 2.10 (0.71–6.21) 0.168
  1. Severity of injury was categorized based on the definition given in the article by Cheriyan et al. [36]
  2. CI Confidence interval, NA Not applicable due to limited number of studies in the category, OR Odds ratio, Ref. Reference category, SCI Spinal cord injury, SMD Standardized mean difference