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Table 3 Characteristics of cohort studies of phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols

From: Association between occupational exposures and sarcoma incidence and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis

Author/year Country Time period Age/gender Study cohort Reference cohort
Wiklund et al., 1986 [39] Sweden 1961–1979 Male 354,620 workers employed in agriculture or forestry according to a national census in 1960, born in 1891–1940 1,725,845 men employed in other industries, born in the same time period
Wiklund,, 1988 [40] Sweden From the date of license to 1984   20,245 Swedish pesticide applicators, observed by means of the Swedish Cancer Register General Swedish population
Saracci et al., 1991 [41] International study of 36 cohorts from 10 countries 1951–1987 Female /male 18,390 workers comprise 16,863 males, 1527 females, and 1 of unknown sex, ever-employed in production or spraying of phenoxy herbicides, including those contaminated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) General population
Sathiakumar et al., 1992 [42] Alabama, US 1951–1987 Male 4323 men employed at a plant in Alabama that manufactures agricultural, including insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, micronutrients US and AL general population mortality rates
Wiklund et al., 1994 [43] Sweden 1971–1987 Female 50,682 women with occupations in agriculture, at least 20 h a week, according to the Swedish 1970 census General female population
Gambini et al., 1997 [44] Northern Italy 1957–1992 Male 1487 male rice growers National death rate
Lynge, 1995 [45] Denmark 1947–1993 Female/male 2119 workers from Denmark who were potentially exposed to phenoxy herbicides General population of Denmark
Fleming et al., 1999 [46] Florida, US 1975–1993 Female/male 33,658 (10% female) licensed pesticide applicators General population of Florida
Alavanja et al., 2005 [50] Iowa and North Carolina, US Through 2006 Female/male 52,394 licensed private pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina, 32,346 spouses of these private applicators, and 4916 licensed commercial applicators, recruited in 1993–1997 Total population of Iowa
Coggon et al., 2015 [38] England and Wales Though 2012 Male 8036 men employed at five factories, which had manufactured phenoxy herbicides, or in spraying business General population of England and Wales