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Table 2 Characteristics of case–control studies of phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols

From: Association between occupational exposures and sarcoma incidence and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis

Author/year Region/country Time period Age/gender Cases Controls
Hardell et al., 1979 [22] Northern Sweden 1970–1977 Male
52 histologically confirmed soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients admitted to the department of oncology Age, sex, and place of residence matched 208 controls from the National Population Registry
Eriksson et al., 1981 [23] Southern Sweden 1974–1978 Male 110 histologically confirmed STS cases reported to the cancer registry of the National Social Welfare Board By municipality and age matched 220 controls extracted from the National Population Registry
Greenwald et al., 1984 [24] US 1962–1980 Male 281 men with Vietnam service and military service experiences who were diagnosed with STS 281 controls derived from driver’s license files and matched on 5-year period of birth and ZIP code of residence
Smith et al., 1984 [25] New Zealand 1976–1980 Male 82 subjects with histologically confirmed STS, reported to the National Cancer Registry from public hospitals 92 controls with other types of cancer matched on age and had the same year of registration
Hoar et al., 1986 [26] Kansas, US 1976–1982 Male
 > 21
All newly diagnosed 133 STS cases through the University of Kansas Cancer Data Service 948 controls from general population of Kansas, matched on age and vital status
Kang et al., 1986 [27] US 1969–1983 Male 234 Vietnam-era veteran patients who served in the US military between 1964 and 1975, treated in one of the 172 Veterans Affairs hospitals with a diagnosis of STS 13,496 Veterans Affairs patients who were sampled from the same Vietnam-era veteran patient population from which the cases were drawn
Kang et al., 1987 [28] US 1975–1980 Male 217 of STS sarcoma cases selected form the Armed forced Institute of pathology, men who were diagnosed STS between 1975 and 1980 599 controls from the Vietnam service population
Vineis et al., 1987 [29] Northern Italy 1981–1983 Female/male
 > 20
68 persons (31 women) histologically revised STS cases diagnosed between 1981 and 1983, majority of cases were employed in rice weeding for > 10 years 158 randomly selected population referents (73 women)
Woods et al., 1987 [30] Western Washington, US 1981–1984 Male
128 men with STS identified through a population-based tumor registry that covered 13 counties 694 randomly selected live controls without cancer
Wingren et al., 1990 [31] Southeast Sweden 1975–1982 Male
96 STS cases 450 randomly selected population referents, including 200 individuals with a cancer diagnosis other than sarcoma
Eriksson et al., 1990 [32] Seven counties of Central Sweden 1978–1986 Male
218 histologically confirmed STS cases 212 controls, matched by age, gender, and county of residence
Franceschi et al., 1992 [33] Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, Northeast Italy 1985–1991 Female/male
93 STS cases (53 males and 40 females), admitted in-patient or outpatient clinics of the Avino cancer center or to the general hospitals of the study area 721 controls: 371 males and 350 females admitted to aforementioned hospitals for a wide spectrum of disease, malignant disorders were excluded
Smith et al., 1992 [34] Victoria, Australia 1976–1987 Male
 > 30
30 males with STS treated at any of six major Melbourne hospitals and who were still alive at the time of selection for the study For each case Cancer Registry staff randomly selected one control with another type of cancer
Kogevinas et al., 1995 [35] 11 countries 1991 Female/male 21,183 workers from 24 cohorts. 13,898 workers were assessed as exposed to any phenoxy herbicide or chlorophenols, 3951 as unexposed, and 541 as of unknown exposure on the basis of job history. 11 STS cases were identified 5 controls per case, matched on age, sex, and country of residence at the time of employment
Hoppin et al., 1998 [36] US 1984–1988 Male
251 STS cases, from eight population-based cancer registries: Connecticut; Kansas; Iowa; Miami, Florida; Detroit, Michigan; San Francisco, California; Seattle, Washington; and Atlanta, Georgia, men born in 1929–1953 to include the age group eligible for service in Vietnam 1908 male living controls, enabling more complete job history
Pahwa et al., 2011 [37] Six provinces of Canada 1991–1994 Male
 ≥ 19
357 cases with first diagnosis of STS in 1991–1994, ascertained from provincial cancer registries, except in Quebec, where hospital ascertainment was used 1506 randomly selected, age matched, free of cancers of interest living controls, resident in the same province as cases
Coggon et al., 2015 [38] UK Up to 2012 Male 15 men with STS employed at five factories in England, which had manufactured phenoxy herbicides, or in a contract spraying business Age-matched 150 controls