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Table 5 Subgroup analysis

From: Obstructive sleep apnea increases the risk of cardiovascular damage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of imaging studies

Echocardiographic parameters Subgroup N SMD (95% CI) p value Study heterogeneity
I2 χ2 p value
LAVI Overall 6 0.307 (0.096, 0.518) 0.004 89.50% 47.49  < 0.001
Age       
Age ≥ 50 2 0.598 (− 0.070, 1.265) 0.886 9.6% 10.17 0.293
Age < 50 4 0.962 (− 0.054, 1.978) 0.064 92.7% 41.05  < 0.001
BMI       
BMI ≥ 30 3 1.121 (− 0.585, 2.828) 0.198 95.6% 45.02  < 0.001
BMI < 30 3 0.262 (− 0.026, 0.550) 0.075 11.0% 2.25 0.325
LVM Overall 7 0.558 (0.403, 0.712)  < 0.001 87.3% 47.42  < 0.001
Age       
Age ≥ 50 5 0.648 (− 0.007, 1.371) 0.079 90.5% 42.10  < 0.001
Age < 50 2 0.593 (0.121, 1.066) 0.001 0.0% 0.60 0.438
BMI       
BMI ≥ 30 2 0.593 (0.121, 1.066) 0.224 94.9% 19.65  < 0.001
BMI < 30 5 0.382 (0.121, 0.644) 0.004 37.9% 6.44 0.168
LVMI Overall 23 0.478 (0.242, 0.714)  < 0.001 81.3% 117.7  < 0.001
Age       
Age ≥ 50 11 0.332 (− 0.047, 0.712) 0.086 85.7% 69.94  < 0.001
Age < 50 12 0.619 (0.242, 0.714)  < 0.001 71.1% 38.06  < 0.001
BMI       
BMI ≥ 30 7 0.211 (− 0.227, 0.650) 0.345 83.0% 35.29  < 0.001
  BMI < 30 16 0.598 (0.311, 0.884)  < 0.001 81.2% 79.94  < 0.001
IVSD Overall 24 0.471 (0.195, 0.747) 0.001 87.1% 177.71  < 0.001
Age       
Age ≥ 50 10 0.569 (− 0.007, 1.145) 0.053 93.6% 141.06  < 0.001
Age < 50 14 0.396 (0.166, 0.626) 0.001 64.5% 36.60  < 0.001
BMI       
BMI ≥ 30 10 0.471 (0.195, 0.747) 0.005 83.0% 52.84  < 0.001
BMI < 30 14 0.446 (0.046, 0.846) 0.029 88.4% 112.43  < 0.001
PWD Overall 22 0.602 (0.328, 0.875)  < 0.001 86.7% 157.47  < 0.001
Age       
Age ≥ 50 9 0.712 (0.084, 1.340) 0.026 93.7% 127.17  < 0.001
Age < 50 13 0.511 (0.304, 0.718)  < 0.001 58.8% 29.11 0.004
BMI       
BMI ≥ 30 8 0.356 (− 0.276, 0.988) 0.270 92.9% 98.19  < 0.001
BMI < 30 14 0.730 (0.504, 0.955)  < 0.001 68.0% 40.68  < 0.001
LVEF Overall 39  − 0.238 (− 0.379, − 0.097) 0.001 73.4% 142.76  < 0.001
Age       
Age ≥ 50 16  − 0.142 (− 0.378, 0.094) 0.238 80.5% 76.92  < 0.001
Age < 50 23  − 0.310 (− 0.476, − 0.143)  < 0.001 62.8% 59.07  < 0.001
BMI       
BMI ≥ 30 13  − 0.254 (− 0.630, 0.121) 0.184 87.5% 95.72 0.005
BMI < 30 26  − 0.239 (− 0.358, − 0.120)  < 0.001 46.4% 46.63  < 0.001
LV MPI Overall 8 0.687 (0.371, 1.004)  < 0.001 74.4% 27.38  < 0.001
Age       
Age ≥ 50 2 0.456 (− 0.413, 1.326) 0.304 92.4% 13.09  < 0.001
Age < 50 6 0.773 (0.426, 1.121)  < 0.001 63.0% 13.50 0.019
BMI       
BMI ≥ 30 4 0.663 (0.091, 1.235) 0.023 80.9% 15.72 0.001
BMI < 30 4 0.734 (0.363, 1.105)  < 0.001 66.7% 9.02 0.029
RVD Overall 15 0.725 (0.605, 0.845)  < 0.001 82.7% 80.8  < 0.001
Age       
Age ≥ 50 11 0.678 (0.318, 1.039)  < 0.001 70.2% 10.06 0.018
Age < 50 4 0.873 (0.454, 1.293)  < 0.001 85.5% 69.08  < 0.001
BMI       
BMI ≥ 30 8 0.922 (0.442, 1.403)  < 0.001 87.0% 53.65  < 0.001
BMI < 30 7 0.676 (0.329, 1.023)  < 0.001 72.6% 21.93 0.001
RV MPI Overall 8 0.881 (0.487, 1.274)  < 0.001 79.4% 33.98  < 0.001
Age       
Age ≥ 50 3 0.723 (− 0.151, 1.597) 0.105 89.9% 19.70  < 0.001
Age < 50 5 0.973 (0.586, 1.359)  < 0.001 62.8% 10.75 0.029
BMI       
BMI ≥ 30 5 0.651 (0.161, 1.141) 0.009 80.1% 20.07  < 0.001
BMI < 30 3 1.226 (0.879, 1.572)  < 0.001 20.5% 2.52 0.284
TAPSE Overall 10  − 0.481 (− 0.810, − 0.152) 0.004 79.0% 42.9  < 0.001
Age       
Age ≥ 50 4  − 0.476 (− 1.137, 0.185) 0.158 74.2% 23.27  < 0.001
Age < 50 6  − 0.488 (− 0.874, − 0.102) 0.013 87.1% 19.38 0.002
BMI       
BMI ≥ 30 5  − 0.357 (− 0.896, 0.182) 0.194 85.0% 26.74  < 0.001
BMI < 30 5  − 0.610 (− 0.987, − 0.232) 0.002 66.2% 11.84 0.019
  1. IVSD interventricular septum diameter, LAD left atrial diameter, LAVI left atrium volume index, LVM left ventricular mass, LVMI left ventricular mass index, LV MPI left ventricular myocardial performance index, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, OSA obstructive sleep apnea, PWD posterior wall diameter, SMD standardized mean difference, RVD right ventricular diameter, RV FAC right ventricular fractional area change, RV MPI right ventricular myocardial performance index, TAPSE tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion