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Table 4 Results of the meta-analysis comparing OSA patients and controls

From: Obstructive sleep apnea increases the risk of cardiovascular damage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of imaging studies

Echocardiographic parameters Number of studies OSA/control SMD (95% CI) p value Study heterogeneity Egger’s test p value
I2 χ2 p value
LAD (mm) 13 1107/317 0.385 (0.252, 0.518)  < 0.001 39.1% 19.72 0.073 0.757
LAVI (ml/m2) 6 238/163 0.307 (0.096, 0.518) 0.004 89.50% 47.49  < 0.001 0.036
LVESD (mm) 24 1526/620 0.323 (0.223, 0.422)  < 0.001 0.00% 14.8 0.902 0.646
LVEDD (mm) 18 918/406 0.126 (0.003, 0.249) 0.044 0.00% 13.98 0.669 0.638
LVM (g) 7 708/612 0.558 (0.403, 0.712)  < 0.001 87.3% 47.42  < 0.001 0.807
LVMI (g/m2) 23 1515/641 0.478 (0.242, 0.714)  < 0.001 81.3% 117.7  < 0.001 0.562
IVSD (mm) 24 1375/808 0.471 (0.195, 0.747) 0.001 87.1% 177.71  < 0.001 0.021
PWD (mm) 22 1348/1047 0.602 (0.328, 0.875)  < 0.001 86.7% 157.47  < 0.001 0.087
LVEF (%) 39 2552/1737  − 0.238 (− 0.379, − 0.097) 0.001 73.4% 142.76  < 0.001 0.465
LV MPI 8 512/385 0.687 (0.371, 1.004)  < 0.001 74.4% 27.38  < 0.001 0.915
RVD (mm) 15 845/470 0.725 (0.605, 0.845)  < 0.001 82.7% 80.8  < 0.001 0.184
RV MPI 8 303/346 0.881 (0.487, 1.274)  < 0.001 79.4% 33.98  < 0.001 0.052
TAPSE 10 435/419  − 0.481 (− 0.810, − 0.152) 0.004 79.0% 42.9  < 0.001 0.12
RV FAC 5 762/234  − 0.399 (− 0.553, − 0.246)  < 0.001 0.00% 2.59 0.629 0.222
  1. IVSD interventricular septum diameter, LAD left atrial diameter, LAVI left atrium volume index, LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, LVESD left ventricular end-systolic diameter, LVM left ventricular mass, LVMI left ventricular mass index, LV MPI left ventricular myocardial performance index, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, OSA obstructive sleep apnea, PWD posterior wall diameter, SMD standardized mean difference, RVD right ventricular diameter, RV FAC right ventricular fractional area change, RV MPI right ventricular myocardial performance index, TAPSE tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion