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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies on OSA and coronary artery calcification

From: Obstructive sleep apnea increases the risk of cardiovascular damage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of imaging studies

First author Year Country Simple size Subgroup Diagnosis criteria Age, year Male, % BMI, kg/m2 Hypertension, % Hyperlipidemia, % Diabetes, % ESS AHI, events/h OSA diagnostic methods NOS
Sorajja [13] 2008 USA 202 Controls (48) AHI < 5 46 30 (63) 31 20 (40) 23 (48) 2 (4) NA NA PSG 8
OSA (154) AHI ≥ 5 51 111 (72) 35 76 (49) 99 (64) 14 (9) NA NA
Kim [14] 2010 Korea 258 First quartile (64) The quartile of AHI 44 ± 3 64 (100) 23 ± 2 4 (6) NA 2 (3) NA 0.2 ± 0.2 PSG 9
Second quartile (64) 45 ± 3 64 (100) 24 ± 3 10 (16) NA 2 (3) NA 1.8 ± 0.8
Third quartile (65) 46 ± 3 65 (100) 24.8 ± 3 9 (14) NA 5 (6) NA 5.7 ± 1.8
Fourth quartile (65) 44 ± 3 65 (100) 26 ± 3 14 (22) NA 2 (3) NA 24 ± 15
Kepez [15] 2011 Turkey 97 Snoring group (17) AHI < 5 46.60 ± 4.59 10 (58.8) 28.25 ± 4.04 4 (23.5) 2 (12.5) 2 (11.8) NA NA PSG 7
Mild OSA (22) 5 ≤ AHI < 15 46.56 ± 9.54 16 (72.7) 27.61 ± 3.09 7 (31.8) 6 (27.3) 2 (9.1) NA NA
Moderate OSA (21) 15 ≤ AHI < 30 52.17 ± 7.20 16 (76.2) 29.18 ± 3.28 7 (33) 5 (23.8) 2 (9.5) NA NA
Severe OSA (37) AHI ≥ 30 49.85 ± 10.60 22 (59.5) 30.99 ± 4.43 15 (40.5) 11 (29.7) 7 (18.9) NA NA
Arik [16] 2013 Turkey 73 Controls (16) AHI < 5 50 ± 10
48 ± 9
9 (56.3)
6 (40.2)
28.2 ± 4.8
30.9 ± 6.4
6 (38) 6 (38) 4 (25) NA 2.4 ± 1.1
8.0 ± 2.0
PSG 7
Mild OSA (14) AHI 5–15 5 (36) 3 (21) 2 (14) NA
Moderate OSA (19) AHI 16–29 47 ± 9 13 (68.4) 28.4 ± 4.8 4 (21) 3 (16) 6 (32) NA 22.5 ± 4.3
Severe OSA (24) AHI ≥ 30 52 ± 10 15 (62.5) 32.2 ± 4.1 12 (50) 9 (38) 9 (38) NA 45.3 ± 16.3
Weinreich [17] 2013 Germany 1604 Controls (551) AHI < 5 M 61.9 ± 6.9
F 60.8 ± 6.8
209 (37.9) M 27.6 ± 3.6
F 26.2 ± 4.2
123 (58.9)
149 (43.6)
NA
NA
27 (12.9)
30 (8.8)
NA NA Unattended portable monitoring 8
Mild OSA (651) 5 ≤ AHI < 15 M 63.4 ± 7.4
F 64.6 ± 7.2
327 (50.2) M 28.4 ± 3.5; F 27.7 ± 4.6 230 (70.3)
190 (58.6)
NA
NA
42 (12.8)
30 (9.3)
NA NA
Moderate OSA (288) 15 ≤ AHI ≤ 29 M 65.1 ± 7.3
F 66.1 ± 7.4
176 (61.1) M 28.6 ± 3.7; F 28.8 ± 5.1 125 (71)
69 (61.6)
NA
NA
26 (14.7)
13 (11.6)
NA NA
Severe OSA (114) AHI ≥ 30 M 65.9 ± 7.7
F 68.5 ± 5.7
79 (69.3) M 30.2 ± 3.9; F 30.9 ± 4.1 63 (79.8)
25 (71.4)
NA
NA
8 (10.1)
5 (14.3)
NA NA
Luyster [18] 2014 USA 252 Controls (61) AHI < 5 59.1 ± 7.8 29 (48) 29.0 ± 5.8 43 (71) 45 (77) 10 (16) NA 2.7 ± 1.1 Home sleep testing 9
Mild OSA (97) AHI 5–14 60.9 ± 7.6 48 (49) 29.9 ± 4.5 65 (67) 81 (83) 22 (23) NA 9.0 ± 2.7
Moderate-severe OSA (94) AHI ≥ 15 62.0 ± 6.5 64 (68) 30.4 ± 5.0 71 (75) 65 (69) 19 (20) NA 26.9 ± 12.3
Lutsey [19] 2015 USA 1465 Normal (510) AHI < 5 66.9 ± 9.0 165 (32.3) 26.6 ± 5.0 NA NA 71 (14.0) NA NA PSG 9
Mild OSA (478) AHI 5–14 68.9 ± 9.2 214 (44.8) 28.9 ± 5.0 NA NA 90 (19.0) NA NA
Moderate OSA (263) AHI 15–29 69.1 ± 9.2 155 (58.9) 29.6 ± 5.3 NA NA 63 (24.1) NA NA
Severe OSA (214) AHI ≥ 30 67.9 ± 9.0 136 (63.6) 31.7 ± 6.0 NA NA 51 (23.8) NA NA
Medeiros [20] 2016 Brazil 214 Controls (132) AHI < 5 55 (51–59) 0 (0) 27 (24–29) 92 (70) 94 (77) 32 (24) 9 (5–13) 1.9 (0.5–3.3) Attended portable monitoring 7
Mild OSA (61) 5 ≤ AHI < 15 59 (54–62) 0 (0) 29 (25–34) 50 (82) 45 (75) 15 (25) 9 (6–13) 8.3 (6.0–11.1)
Moderate/severe OSA (21) AHI ≥ 15 58 (53–63) 0 (0) 32 (29–35) 20 (95) 14 (70) 6 (29) 9 (7–15) 16.9 (15.4–24.5)
Seo [21] 2017 Korea 461 Normal (64) AHI < 5 55.08 ± 7.65 428 (92.8) 25.57 ± 3.01 205 (44.5) 268 (58.1) 62 (13.4) NA 25.46 ± 21.10 PSG 8
OSA (397) AHI ≥ 5
Hamaoka [8] 2018 Japan 32 Mild-moderate OSA (15) AHI 5–29 61.3 ± 12.4 11 (73.3) 26.3 ± 5.0 5 (30.0) 3 (20.0) 2 (13.3) NA 20.7 ± 8.4 PSG 6
Severe OSA (17) AHI ≥ 30 65.0 ± 9.2 15 (88.2) 26.2 ± 5.3 9 (52.9) 5 (29.4) 4 (23.5) NA 45.2 ± 11.9
Shpilsky [22] 2018 USA 765 No/mild OSA (204) AHI < 15 58 ± 7 159 (28) 30 ± 6 199 (36) NA 43 (8) NA 11 ± 11 Portable home monitoring 7
Moderate/severe OSA (561) AHI ≥ 15 61 ± 7 108 (53) 31 ± 6 104 (51) NA 22 (11) NA 26.1 ± 12.0
Bikov [7] 2019 Hungary 41 Controls (19) AHI ≤ 5 56 ± 9 3 (16) 26.3 ± 3.8 12 (63) 3 (16) 10 (53) 6.2 ± 3.7 1.8 ± 1.1 PSG or polygraphy 7
OSA (22) AHI > 5 62 ± 10 12 (55) 29.4 ± 5.7 34 (77) 22 (50) 8 (18) 7.2 ± 4.7 18.8 ± 16.3
  1. AHI apnea hypopnea index, BMI body mass index, ESS Epworth sleepiness scale, NOS Newcastle–Ottawa scale, OSA obstructive sleep apnea, PSG polysomnography