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Table 2 Characteristics of included qualitative studies

From: Understanding how to facilitate continence for people with dementia in acute hospital settings: a mixed methods systematic review and thematic synthesis

Author/s, year, country
Aim
Setting
Participants
Demographic details for PLWD Methods
MMAT score
Study 1: Bliss et al. 2013 [61]
USA
To describe health literacy needs related to incontinence and skin care among family or friend caregivers of individuals with AD and develop supportive and educational materials that address these
Setting
Home
Participants
Family/friend adult caregivers (n = 48)
Spouses (44%), daughters (31%), or extended family members/friends (25%)
Recruited from community-based agencies
Gender
Female (75%)
Age (mean + SD) years
64 ± 14
Mental status
AD or dementia
Methods
Focus groups and interviews
MMAT score: 100%
Study 1: Mullins et al. 2016 [62]
USA
To examine barriers to communicating with healthcare professionals and health literacy about incontinence among different types of informal caregivers of individuals with AD
Same as Bliss et al. 2013 See Bliss et al. 2013 See Bliss et al. 2013
MMAT score: 100%
Study 2: Hutchinson et al. 1996 [63]
USA
To addresses the range and variation of toileting problems, management strategies used by family and employed caregivers
Setting
AD specific day centre
Home
Participants
Family members who participated in the centre support groups (n = 16)
Staff members employed at the day care centre (n = 13)
Demographic characteristics of patients with AD who attended the day centre were not reported
Mental status
AD
Methods
Participant observation at the day care centre, clients’ home, and support groups
Interviews with families and staff members
Based on qualitative ethology
MMAT score: 75%
Study 3: Rolnick et al. 2013 [64]
USA
To examine healthcare providers’ perspectives regarding improving communication with patients and their caregivers about incontinence and dementia
Setting
Secondary care providers
Participants
Physicians (n = 8)/nurse practitioners (n = 2)/pharmacist (n = 1)
Potential participants suggested by advisory committee
Not applicable
Mental status
Dementia
Methods
Interviews
MMAT score: 100%
Study 4: Ostaszkiewicz et al. 2018 [65]
Australia
To explore nursing home staff members’ beliefs and expectations about what constitutes “quality continence care” for people living in nursing homes
Setting
Nursing home
Participants
Nursing home staff (n = 19)
Registered nurses (n = 8)
Enrolled nurses (n = 4)
Personal care workers (n = 7)
Recruited using snowballing technique; selective placement of information in print and electronic media; and information sessions at several nursing homes
Not applicable
Mental status
Most nursing home residents were cognitively impaired
Methods
Interviews
Naturalistic inquiry using a qualitative exploratory descriptive research approach
MMAT score: 100%
Study 14: Scerri et al. 2018 [66]
Malta
To categorise the perceived and observed needs of persons with dementia admitted in acute medical wards and to explore whether these needs are being or have been met.
Setting
Acute medical wards (n = 3)
Participants
PLWD and their family members (n = 12)
Gender
Age (mean) years
84.7
Range 71 to 93
Mental status
Dementia
Methods
Interviews
Observations using dementia care mapping
MMAT score: 75%
  1. Key: AD Alzheimer’s disease, MMAT Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool, PLWD people living with dementia, SD standard deviation