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Table 2 Relative risk estimates for COVID-19 infection outcomes, older ages, by country

From: Effect modification of the association between comorbidities and severe course of COVID-19 disease by age of study participants: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Country Source Date Status Change Sex Age group
<50 50–69 (95%CI) 70+ (95%CI)
USA [35, 36] CDC 16.05.2020 Infection to death Both Ref 9.8 (9.5–10.2) 53.1 (51.3–54.9)
Italy [37] ISS 20.05.2020 Infection to death Male Ref 10.1 (8.9–11.4) 43.2 (38.2–49.0)
Female Ref 11.1 (9.0–13.7) 82.3 (67.4–100.4)
Both Ref 11.3 (10.1–12.6) 53.8 (48.5–59.8)
Spain [38] ISCIII 21.05.2020 Infection to hospitalisation Male Ref 1.9 (1.8–1.9) 2.2 (2.2–2.3)
Female Ref 2.2 (2.1–2.2) 3.0 (2.9–3.0)
Both Ref 2.1 (2.1–2.1) 2.6 (2.6–2.7)
Hospitalisation to death Male Ref 3.7 (3.2–4.2) 15.8 (13.7–18.1)
Female Ref 4.1 (0.6–28.6) 26.8 (3.8–187.9)
Both Ref 3.7 (3.3–4.1) 18.1 (16.2–20.2)
Infection to death Male Ref 6.9 (6.0–8.0) 35.3 (30.7–40.6)
Female Ref 7.5 (6.1–9.1) 66.1 (54.8–79.8)
Both Ref 7.7 (6.9–8.7) 47.3 (42.3–52.8)
France [39] Santé publique France 18.05.2020 Hospitalisation to death Both Ref 2.8 (2.6–3.1) 7.3 (6.7–7.9)
England [40] Public Health England 20.05.2020 Infection to death Male Ref 7.2 (6.5–7.9) 19.0 (17.3–20.8)
Female Ref 9.3 (8.2–10.5) 36.2 (32.3–40.7)
Both Ref 8.7 (8.1–9.4) 26.6 (24.8–28.6)
Belgium [41] Sciensano 26.05.2020 Infection to death Male Ref 5.0 (4.0–6.2) 20.2 (16.5–24.7)
Female Ref 9.1 (6.8–12.3) 51.7 (39.3–68.1)
Both Ref 7.4 (6.2–8.8) 32.0 (27.2–37.7)
Germany [42] RKI 27.05.2020 Infection to death Both Ref 17.5 (14.2–21.6) 195.1 (159.6–238.5)