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Table 1 Association in original studies and own calculations of relative risks by COVID-19 outcomes and by risk

From: Effect modification of the association between comorbidities and severe course of COVID-19 disease by age of study participants: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Risk group Outcome Number of studies reporting Reported measure of association (95 %CI) Number of studies
Calculated RR
Calculated relative risk ranges (95 %CI) Pooled analysis RR (95% CI)
Comorbidities
Asthma Death    1 0.9 (0.3–2.4) 0.9 (0.3–2.4)
Hospitalisation    2 1.2 (0.6–2.5)–1.3 (0.5–3.6) 1.2 (0.7–2.2)
ICU admission 1   1 1.1 (0.7–1.6) 1.1 (0.7–1.6)
Cancer Death 1 RR: 2.9 (1.3–6.4) 7 0.7 (0.1–4.9)–4.8 (1.1–21.5) 2.0 (1.4–2.8)
Hospitalisation    12 0.8 (0.1–4.4)–4.4 (1.0–19.5) 1.5 (1.2–1.8)
ICU admission 1 OR: 5.4 (1.8–16.2) 5 1.4 (0.7–3.0)–4.9 (2.7–9.0) 2.3 (1.3–4.0)
Cardiovascular disease Death 4 RR: 6.8 (5.4–8.4) 15 1.3 (0.2–8.9)–6.7 (5.4–8.4) 3.3 (2.3–4.5)
OR: 1.2 (0.2–7.8) -2.1 (0.3–17.8)
HR: 1.9 (1.1–3.3)
Hospitalisation 2 OR: 2.4 (1.5–3.9) 23 0.7 (0.1–3.9)–3.9 (1.7–8.8) 2.0 (1.6–2.4)
HR: 0.6 (0.1–3.6)
Composite    1 1.6 (0.8–3.1) 1.6 (0.8–3.1)
ICU admission    8 0.9 (0.4–2.1)–4.1 (3.4–4.9) 2.1 (1.3–3.2)
Cerebrovascular disease Death 1 HR: 1.4 (0.7–2.9) 7 1.2 (0.3–4.3)–7.1 (3.3–15.4) 2.6 (1.7–4.1)
Hospitalisation    6 1.1 (0.7–2.0)–3.4 (2.3–5.1) 2.2 (1.5–3.3)
Composite    1 4.6 (1.9–11.0) 4.6 (1.9–11.0)
ICU admission    4 0.8 (0.5–1.3)–3.7 (2.4–5.8) 1.9 (0.9-4.0)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Death 2 OR: 5.4 (0.9–30.4) 6 1.9 (0.4–10.1)–6.0 (1.3–26.8) 2.4 (2.0–3.0)
HR: 2.2 (1.1–4.5)
Hospitalisation    11 1.2 (0.9–1.7)–4.3 (0.8–17.1) 2.0 (1.5–2.6)
Composite    1 0.9 (0.2–5.0) 0.9 (0.2–5.0)
ICU admission    4 1.0 (0.4–2.8)–10.6 (6.2–16.1) 2.4 (0.6–9.8)
Chronic renal failure Death    3 1.9 (0.4–10.1)–2.6 (1.8–3.6) 2.5 (1.8–3.4)
Hospitalisation    9 0.8 (0.3–2.5)–3.3 (2.8–3.9) 1.6 (1.0–2.6)
ICU admission    4 0.8 (0.4–1.9)–4.6 (3.6–5.8) 2.1 (0.9–4.9)
Diabetes mellitus Death 5 RR: 4.5 (3.5–5.6) 18 1.1 (0.6–1.9)–4.5 (1.9–10.6) 2.2 (1.7–2.9)
OR: 2.9 (1.4–6.1)–4.9 (1.3–18.2)
HR: 1.1 (0.6–2.1)–1.7 (0.3–8.2)
  Hospitalisation 4 OR: 0.7 (0.1–8.3)–OR: 4.7 (0.7–32.4)
HR: 1.6 (1.0–2.4)–HR: 1.7 (0.3–8.2)
30 0.7 (0.2–2.4)–4.3 (2.4–7.7) 1.8 (1.5–2.2)
Composite    1 1.4 (0.7–2.8) 1.4 (0.7–2.8)
ICU admission 3 OR: 1.6 (0.4–5.8)–2.1 (0.7–6.2) 12 0.3 (0.1–2.3)–4.6 (2.8–7.5) 1.9 (1.4–2.6)
HR: 2.3 (1.4–4.1)
Diseases of liver Death    3 0.9 (0.1–5.9)–4.8 (1.1–21.5) 1.9 (0.6–6.4)
Hospitalisation    10 0.8 (0.1–4.3)–11.3 (4.6–27.6) 1.7 (1.0–2.9)
Diseases of the digestive system Death    1 0.8 (0.1–6.1) 0.8 (0.1–6.1)
Hospitalisation    3 0.7 (0.2–2.2)–2.0 (0.7–5.2) 1.2 (0.9–1.5)
ICU admission    1 0. 8 (0.4–1.5) 0.8 (0.4–1.5)
Endocrine diseases Death    1 1.2 (0.4–3.9) 1.2 (0.4–3.9)
Hospitalisation    1 1.4 (1.2–1.5) 1.4 (1.2–1.5)
Hypertension Death 6 RR: 4.5 (3.7–5.5) 17 1.1 (0.2–6.4)–8.1 (2.9–22.3) 2.7 (2.1–3.4)
OR: 1.1 (0.3–4.6)–3.1 (1.6–5.9)
HR: 1.5 (0.9–2.4)–1.7 (0.9–3.1)
Hospitalisation 5 OR 2.7 (1.3–5.6)–4.4 (1.0–18.9) 29 0.8 (0.3–1.9)–4.4 (2.6–7.4) 1.8 (1.6–2.1)
HR: 1.6 (0.4–5.8)–HR: 1.6 (1.1–2.3)
Composite    2 1.3 (0.7–2.4)–3.2 (2.0–5.1) 2.1 (0.9–4.9)
ICU admission 3 OR: 0.5 (0.1–1.7)–2.3 (0.9–5.8) 9 0.9 (0.6–1.3)–3.1 (1.8–5.4) 1.4 (1.1–1.7)
HR:1.8 (1.1–2.9)
Immunocompromised condition Hospitalisation    1 1.7 (1.4–2.1) 1.7 (1.4–2.1)
ICU admission    1 2.6 (1.9–3.5) 2.6 (1.9–3.5)
Mycobacterial diseases Hospitalisation    1 0.9 (0.4–1.9) 0.9 (0.4–1.9)
Other diseases or unspecified Death 1 OR: 1.5 (1.0–2.2) 2 1.6 (1.1–2.4)–1.9 (0.9–4.3) 1.7 (1.2–2.4)
Hospitalisation 2 OR: 2.8 (0.8–10.1) 6 0.9 (0.3–2.7)–6.0 (3.5–10.4) 2.9 (1.6–5.1)
HR: 3.9 (1.9–7.9)
ICU admission    1 2.5 (1.3–4.9) 2.5 (1.3–4.9)
Other respiratory diseases Death    7 0.8 (0.3–2.2)–3.4 (2.4–4.9) 2.2 (1.5–3.0)
Hospitalisation    7 0.9 (0.5–1.7)–2.9 (1.0–8.2) 1.4 (1.1–1.8)
ICU admission    3 0.4 (0.2–1.1)–2.6 (2.1–3.2) 1.3 (0.6–2.9)
Demographic, behavioural, and occupational factors
Healthcare profession Death    2 0.1 (0.0–0.8)–0.1 (0.1–0.3) 0.1 (0.1–0.3)
Hospitalisation    3 0.1 (0.0–0.3)–0.8 (0.3–2.2) 0.3 (0.1–0.9)
Male sex Death 4 RR: 1.7 (1.5–1.9) 19 0.7 (0.1–7.5)–4.7 (1.4–15.1) 1.4 (1.3–1.6)
OR: 1.5 (1.1–1.9)–7.2 (1.3–40.2)
HR: 0.6 (0.3–1.1)
Hospitalisation 5 OR: 1.5 (0.6–3.6)–4.4 (1.0–18.9) 36 0.8 (0.4–1.3)–3.5 (1.7–7.1) 1.3 (1.2–1.5)
HR: 0.9 (0.9–0.9)–1.7 (1.1–2.8)
Composite 1 OR: 1.9 (0.5–7.2) 2 1.5 (0.8–2.8)–1.8 (0.6–5.5) 1.6 (0.9–2.7)
ICU admission 3 OR: 1.1 (0.3–3.4)–2.8 (1.0–7.9) 11 0.7 (0.3–1.6)–2.0 (0.5–77) 1.3 (1.1–1.4)
HR: 1.5 (0.9–2.4)
Obesity Hospitalisation 1 OR: 6.3 (1.2–34.5) 2 2.1 (1.1–4.2)–4.0 (1.0–15.6) 2.4 (1.3–4.4)
ICU admission 1 OR: 5.4 (1.1–25.6)–9.9 (1.4–71.7) 2 1.4 (1.0–1.8)–1.5 (0.9–2.3) 1.4 (1.1–1.8)
Smoking Death 1 OR: 2.2 (0.7–7.6) 4 1.2 (0.8–1.7)–8.7 (3.7–20.1) 2.6 (1.0–6.8)
Hospitalisation 1 OR 14.3 (1.6–25.0) 17 0.4 (0.1–2.3)–5.5 (2.1–14.4) 1.5 (1.2–1.9)
ICU admission    5 0.9 (0.5–1.8)–2.9 (1.8–4.8) 1.8 (1.1–2.9)
  1. National primary care electronic health record data linked to in-hospital COVID-19 death data