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Table 4 Characteristics of studies that were not included in the meta-analysis

From: Low birth weight as a predictor of adverse health outcomes during adulthood in twins: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year Study design Confounders Outcome Result
Antoniades 2003 [17] Cohort study Height, age Bone
Mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at the lumbar spine,
Hip and forearm
No association was found with LBW
Bergvall 2007 [31] Cohort study Zygosity and socioeconomic factors, genetic factors, shared familial environment, BMI Hypertension Decreased birth weight was found to be associated with increased risk of hypertension
Cnattingius 2009 [19] Cohort study Mother’s short status Late fetal death rates The risk of late fetal death is greatly increased in twin fetuses
De Zeeuw 2012 [20] Cohort study Mode of delivery, gestational age and zygosity Educational achievement in primary school Low birth weight were the most important risk factors for lower educational achievement of twins in primary school
Groen-Blokhuis 2011 [21] Cohort study Zygosity Attention problems Association of birth weight and attention problems represented a causal relationship
Hestbaek 2003 [22] Cohort study Birth factors and anthropometric measures in adolescence Low back pain The odds ratio for the lifetime prevalence of low back pain increases from 1.21 (0.94-1.56) for a birth weight of 2000-2500 g to 1.97 (1.35-2.88) for a birth weight of > 3500 g compared to the smallest weight group (< 2000 g) in males, whereas there is a small statistically insignificant, positive association for females.
Hultman 2007 [23] Cohort study Fetal growth restriction Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in childhood and early adolescence Low birth weight was a risk factor for symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the associations did not diminish when we controlled for genetic influence
Williams 1996 [24] Cohort study Gestational age Cerebral palsy The relative risk was greatest in twins weighing more than 2499 g (4.5). However, after adjusting for reduced birthweight of twins it was the relative risk of twins weighing less than 1400 g that was significantly increased.
Yokoyama 2007 [29] Cohort study Gestational age Motor development in early life The mean age at achieving milestones was slower in twins with normal birth weight than singletons