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Table 1 Definitions of the review question elements using the PIC format

From: Healthcare provider characteristics that influence the implementation of individual-level patient-centered outcome measure (PROM) and patient-reported experience measure (PREM) data across practice settings: a protocol for a mixed methods systematic review with a narrative synthesis

PIC element Definition
In this review, patients complete a PROM or PREM in a given practice setting/health service and then HCPs act on the resultant data in the provision of patient care.
Population (P) Healthcare provider(s)
Refers to individuals from any health discipline or profession that provides direct health services to patients, clients, and/or families. HCPs are regulated or licensed healthcare professional; however, this may vary by country. HCPs may be referred to as clinicians. Common HCPs include but are not limited to registered nurses, nurse practitioners, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physicians, social workers, dieticians, psychologists, pharmacists, and midwifes.
Phenomena of interest (I) Implement individual-level, patient-centered measurement/assessment tools (and the resultant data)
In a broad sense, implementation is the process or act of making something active or effective. In the context of PROMs, other synonyms include: employ, apply or application, utilize, use, integrate, interpret, draw on, make use of, and act on. The act of implementing PCMs in this review also captures the experiences, views, attitudes habits, practices, and routines of HCPs.
Patient-centered measurement as an umbrella term refers to standardized assessment tools or questionnaires classified as PROMs or PREMs that every patient is eligible to complete. Thus, the questions are completed by the patient and are about outcomes that matter to them. The results are individual level numerical or textual data that indicate the patient’s current state or experience.
Context (C) Routine part of their everyday practice
Is an expression to describe an action that has been taken as a regular or common aspect of the HCP’s role. It is usually in relation to a HCP’s direct interaction between them and the patient/client/family. For example, in acute care or hospital settings, this term used maybe point-of-care or bedside where patient and providers interact on a regular basis, such as daily, weekly, or monthly. The context includes any practice setting or type of health service (e.g., acute care versus community care; private versus publicly funded, and community hospitals versus academic centers/teaching hospitals).