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Table 1 All studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Improved couple satisfaction and communication with marriage and relationship programs: are there gender differences?—a systematic review and meta-analysis

Serial no, first author, year and country Participants Interventions Durations Scales Outcomes
Education/communication skill programs
1. Kroger, 2017 Germany [6] 32 distressed couples Relationship education program 2 consecutive days PQ & PQ Relationship satisfaction and communication skills scores were improved, with moderate to large effects only for soldiers rather than their partners.
2. Li, 2015 China [30] 70 non-distressed couples Couple relationship education (CRE) programs Weekends of 2 consecutive weeks CSI & Enrich Workshop was effective in improving relationship outcomes, including relationship satisfaction and communication skills.
3.Allen, 2011 United States [26] 476 non-distressed couples Relationship education for (Prevention and Relationship Education Program 2 days workshop KMS & CST Positive intervention effects for satisfaction and communication skills, with sacrificing for the marriage or the partner.
4. Einhorn, 2010 United States [31] 149 distressed couples Relationship education program 3 Saturday workshops DAS & CST The workshop helped improve positive bonding and communication skills for our sample
5. Alvaro, 2001 United States [32] 46 distressed couples A forgiveness intervention 1-day seminar EMSS & Enrich Results suggested the intervention was efficacious in relationship satisfaction and communication skills.
6.Young-Ran, 2012 Korea [17] 16 non-distressed couples Marital relationship enrichment program 6 weeks IMS & MCI Marital satisfaction and communication skills increased significantly after the program in the experimental group compared with the control group.
7.Kong, 2005 Korea [18] 70 non-distressed couples Marital relationship enhancement program (MREP) 5 weeks MSS & CDF Participants in the experimental group showed significant improvements in marital satisfaction and communication skills compared to the control group.
8.Halford, 2000 Australia [33] 83 non-distressed couples Self-Regulatory Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program 5 weeks DAS High-risk couples receiving Self-PREP exhibited higher relationship satisfaction at 4 years than control couples.
9. Doss, 2016 United States [34] 300 distressed couples Integrative behavioral couple therapy (IBCT) Eight-hour online program CSI Compared to the waitlist group, intervention couples reported significant improvements in relationship satisfaction.
10. Hrapczynski, 2008 United States [35] 50 non-distressed couples Cognitive behavioral couple therapy (CBCT) 10 weeks DAS & MICS Increased relationship satisfaction and communication skills were shown in intervention compared to the control group.
11. Carson, 2004 United States [36] 44 non-distressed couples Mindfulness-based relationship enhancement 8 weeks QMI Results suggested the intervention was efficacious in (a) favorably impacting couples’ levels of relationship satisfaction.
12. Shapo, 2003 United States [37] 43 distressed couples Support-focused marital therapy (SFMT) 12 weeks DAS The SFMT group experienced significantly greater improvements in Marital satisfaction as compared with the control group.
  1. DAS Dyadic Adjustment Scale, CSI Couples Satisfaction Index, MSS Marital Satisfaction Scale, KMSS Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale, IMS Index of Marital Satisfaction, QMI Quality of Marriage Index, PQ Enriching Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness, and Partnership Questionnaire for the area of satisfaction, CSI Communication Skill Index, CST Communication Skill Test, MICS Marital Interaction Coding System, MCI Marital Communication Inventory, CDF Prepare/Enrich Assessment and Communication Deterioration Factors tool for the area of communication skills