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Table 3 Summary of reported coping mechanisms and strategies among nursing students in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries

From: Perceived stress, stressors, and coping strategies among nursing students in the Middle East and North Africa: an overview of systematic reviews

Coping mechanism (number of primary studies) Coping strategy Specific coping strategy (primary studies)
Problem-focused (n = 19) Active coping Problem solving (n = 11) [70, 72, 74, 75, 81, 85, 91, 92, 95, 97, 98]
Taking action to try to make the situation better (n = 2) [106, 107]
Problem-focused coping (n = 1) [108]
Problem understanding and solving (n = 2) [107, 109]
Solving family problems (n = 1) [110]
Self-reliance (n = 1) [110]
Did what is expected of me (n = 1) [76]
Tension reduction (n =1) [108]
Self-analysis to understand the situation better (n = 1) [76]
Unspecified (n = 1) [111]
Planning Planning strategy (n = 1) [71]
Suppression of competing activities Engaging in demanding activities (n = 1) [110]
Restraint coping Passive coping (n = 1) [94]
Seeking social support for instrumental reasons Asking others for help (n = 1) [109]
Seeking diversions (n = 1) [110]
Developing social support (n = 1) [110]
Emotion-focused (n = 20) Seeking social support for emotional reasons Unspecified (n = 1) [108]
Discuss feeling with friends or classmates (n = 1) [76]
Positive reinforcement and growth Positive reframing (n = 2) [71, 107]
Focusing on the positive (n = 1) [108]
Wishful thinking (n = 3) [73, 107, 108]
Staying optimistic (n = 11) [72, 74, 75, 81, 83, 85, 92, 95, 97, 98, 112]
Acceptance Unspecified (n = 2) [71, 111]
Accept the situation (n = 2) [69, 76]
Turning to religion Practicing religion (n = 1) [111]
Prying or mediating (n = 1) [106]
Finding comfort in religion or spiritual beliefs (n = 1) [106]
Religious related strategies come first (n = 1) [71]
Use of religion, prayer, invocation (n = 2) [69, 109]
Dysfunctional coping (n = 17) Focus on and venting of emotions Venting (n = 1) [71]
Show their feelings and express their reaction (n = 2) [107, 109]
Ventilating feelings (n = 1) [110]
Self-blaming (n = 1) [71]
Self-criticism (n = 1) [73]
Behavioral disengagement Unspecified (n = 1) [71]
Social withdrawal (n = 1) [73]
Avoidance (n = 9) [72,73,74, 85, 92, 97, 98, 107, 112]
Mental disengagement Become involved in other activities (n = 1) [76]
Detachment (n = 1) [108]
Transference (n = 9) [72, 74, 75, 83, 92, 95, 97, 98, 112]
Physical exercise and relaxation (n = 1) [109]
Denial Unspecified (n = 1) [71]
  1. The coping mechanisms were classified as per the COPE inventory tool [62, 113, 114]
  2. n Number of individual primary studies