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Table 4 GRADE summary of findings at baseline and after the addition of newly located trials

From: LOCATE: a prospective evaluation of the value of Leveraging Ongoing Citation Acquisition Techniques for living Evidence syntheses

Timing RCTs (participants) Anticipated absolute effects (95% CI)
Length of stay, days
I2 Certainty of evidence Conclusion
Control (range) Intervention
Oxygen therapy vs. control
 August 2018 (baseline) 3 (375) Mean 2.0 to 6.2 days 0.02 more
(0.37 fewer to 0.41 more)
0% Lowa
May be little to no difference
 March 2019 (added Chen et al. [25] and Ergul et al. [26]) 5 (467) Mean 2.0 to 6.2 days 0.28 fewer
(0.92 fewer to 0.36 more)
54% Very lowb
Very uncertain
Hypertonic saline vs. control
 August 2018 (baseline) 19 (2377) Mean 1.8 to 7.4 days 0.46 fewer
(0.77 fewer to 0.15 fewer)
78% Moderatec
Probably reduces
 September 2018 (added Morikawa et al. [27]) 20 (2505) Mean 1.8 to 7.4 days 0.43 fewer
(0.73 fewer to 0.13 fewer)
77% Moderated
Probably reduces
  1. CI, confidence interval; I2, measure of statistical heterogeneity; RCT, randomized controlled trial
  2. aSerious concerns about the risk of bias (−1): Two of the three included studies are at high risk of bias (selection, performance, detection biases); serious concerns about imprecision (−1): small sample size (<400) and the 95% confidence interval is wide, including the potential for important benefit and harm; no serious concerns about indirectness, inconsistency, or other considerations
  3. bSerious concerns about the risk of bias (−1): Four of the five included studies are at high risk of bias (selection, performance, detection biases); serious concerns about imprecision (−1): the 95% confidence interval is wide, including the potential for important harm; serious concerns about inconsistency (−1): some difference in direction of effects (Ergul et al. [26] showing benefit), minimal overlap in confidence intervals for the two more precise studies; no serious concerns about indirectness or other considerations
  4. cSerious concerns about inconsistency (−1): There is heterogeneity in direction and size of effects that cannot be fully explained by a priori subgroup analyses (by the presence of co-interventions in each group), and several confidence intervals are not overlapping. No serious concerns about the risk of bias, indirectness, imprecision, or other considerations
  5. dSerious concerns about inconsistency (−1): There is heterogeneity in direction and size of effects that cannot be fully explained by a priori subgroup analyses (by the presence of co-interventions in each group), and several confidence intervals are not overlapping. No serious concerns about the risk of bias, indirectness, imprecision, or other considerations