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Table 4 Types of consent and brief description

From: A systematic literature review of attitudes towards secondary use and sharing of health administrative and clinical trial data: a focus on consent

Type of consent



Consent to use data is not sought, as it is believed that the individual would agree to its use if consent were sought.

Broad (or blanket)

The individual provides consent for a broad range of research activities. This consent may be for certain activities, such as research within a particular disease, or for all research purposes.

Dynamic consent

The consent process is iterative and can change with the individuals changing preferences about how they want their data to be used. This process also provides information to the individual about research more generally and the results of previous research using the data.

No consent required

Data which can be used without specific consent from an individual.

No consent with notification

Where explicit consent is not sought, but the individual is advised that their data is being used for a specific research purpose.


The consent process requires the study participant to actively agree to participate in a study.


The consent process requires the study participant to actively exclude themselves from study participation.

Passive consent

Consent is assumed where an individual does not decline to participate.

Retrospective consent

Consent to use data is obtained after the data has been collected.