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Table 3 Reported feeding tolerance-related outcomes in RCTs evaluating the effect of pre, pro, or synbiotics on feeding tolerance of enterally fed critically ill patients

From: Effect of gut microbiota modulation on feeding tolerance of enterally fed critically ill adult patients: a systematic review

Study Energy intake Achieving the target calorie Diarrhea Length of stay
Intervention Control Intervention Control Intervention Control Intervention Control
Bleichner et al., 1997 [17] NR NR NR NR Prevalence: 18/64 (24%)
Days w/ diarrhea per feeding days: 14.2%
Prevalence: 24/64 (38%)
Days w/ diarrhea per feeding days: 18.9%
NR NR
Schultz et al., 2000 [18] Meana Meana NR NR Prevalence: 1/11 (9%) Prevalence: 4/11 (36%) Hospital: 34±14.7
ICU: 28±14.6
Hospital: 24.4±9
ICU: 17.2±8.2
Spapen et al., 2001 [19] NR NR Time to: 5±3 days Time to:
6±3days
Prevalence: 6/13 (46%)
Days w diarrhea per feeding days: 16/148(10.8%)
Prevalence: 11/12(92%)
Days w diarrhea per feeding days: 46/146 (31.5%)
NR NR
Rushdi et al., 2004 [20] Days 1–4 Days 1–4 NR NR Liquid stools day1-4 Liquid stools days 1–4 NR NR
Knight et al., 2009 [21] Days 1–7 Days 1–7 NR NR Prevalence: 7/130 (5%) Prevalence: 9/129 (7%) ICU: 6 (3–11) ICU: 7 (3–14)
Frohmader et al., 2010 [22] NR NR NR NR Frequency of liquid stools: 0.53±0.54 Frequency of liquid stools: 1.05±1.08 ICU: 7.3±5.7 ICU: 8.1±4
Barraud et al., 2010 [23] NR NR NR NR Prevalence: 48/87(55.2) Prevalence: 42/80(52.5) Hospital: 26.6±22.3
ICU: 18.7±12.3
Hospital: 28.9±26.4
ICU: 20.2±20.8
Morrow et al., 2010 [24] NR NR NR NR Prevalence: 44/70(62.9)
Days w/ diarrhea: 5.9±3.8
Prevalence: 42/68(61.8)
Days w/ diarrhea: 4.1±3.7
Hospital: 21.4±14.9
ICU: 14.8±11.8
Hospital: 21.7±17.4
ICU: 14.6±11.6
Ferrie and Daley, 2011 [25] NR NR Prevalence 16/18 (88.8) Prevalence 15/18(83.33) Diarrhea duration: 7.22±3.63
Loose stool per day: 3.14±1.23
Diarrhea duration: 5.72±2.88
Loose stool per day: 3±1.2
Hospital: 54.5±31.26
ICU: 32.04±24.46
Hospital: 59.04±33.92
ICU: 29.75±18.81
Sanaie et al., 2014 [26] Meana Meana NR NR NR NR NR NR
Majid et al.,2014 [27] NR NR NR NR Prevalence: 11/12 (92)
Days w/ diarrhea: 3.9±4.1
Prevalence: 9/10 (90)
Days w/ diarrhea: 3.8±3.5
NR NR
Malik et al., 2016 [28] NR NR Time to: 3±1.75 days Time to: 7±1.7 days NR NR ICU: 10.9±3.9 ICU: 15.8±7.8
Fazilaty et al., 2018 [29] Meana Meana NR NR NR NR ICU: 27.55±7.8 ICU: 31.2±15.8
Shimizu et al., 2018 [30] NR NR NR NR Incidence of enteritis: 2/35 (6.3) Incidence of enteritis: 10/37(27) ICU: 23 (13–43) ICU: 28 (17–45)
Tuncay et al., 2018 [31] Days 1 and 21 Days 1 and 21 Prevalence 22 (95.7) Prevalence 18 (78.3) Prevalence: 8.7% Prevalence: 56.5% Hospital stay <40 days: 56.6%
Hospital stay ≥41 days: 43.4%
ICU stay <40 days: 69.5%
ICU stay ≥41 days: 43.5%
Hospital stay <40 days: 60.9%
Hospital stay ≥41 days: 39.1%
ICU stay <40 days: 69.5%
ICU stay ≥41 days: 30.4%
  1. NR Not reported; ICU Intensive care unit
  2. aMean energy intake was reported for the entire intervention duration