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Table 5 Subgroup of the association between obesity, overweight, and BMI and incidence of kidney cancer

From: Associating the risk of three urinary cancers with obesity and overweight: an overview with evidence mapping of systematic reviews

Stratification criteria Overweight, RR (95% CI) Obesity, RR (95% CI) Per 5 kg/m2, RR (95% CI)
Sex Male 1.28 (1.16, 1.41) 1.65 (1.56, 1.74) 1.18 (1.13, 1.23)
Female 1.51 (1.32, 1.72) 2 (1.91, 2.08) 1.27 (1.23, 1.32)
P value 0.049 0.000 0.009
Age Age < 50 1.43 (1.3, 1.57) 2.05 (1.84, 2.28)  
Age ≥ 50 1.41 (1.37, 1.45) 1.7 (1.62, 1.78)  
P value 0.779 0.020  
Study location Asia 1.59 (1.41, 1.8) 2.06 (1.26, 3.37) 1.23 (0.79, 1.92)
North America 1.41 (1.33, 1.46) 1.9 (1.77, 2.04) 1.19 (1.1, 1.28)
Europe 1.22 (1.18, 1.27) 1.67 (1.58, 1.77) 1.19 (1.14, 1.25)
Asia versus North America (P value) 0.072 0.750 0.031
Asia versus Europe (P value) 0.000 0.406 0.013
North America versus Europe (P value) 0.000 0.005 1.000
Measure BMI measured 1.26 (1.21, 1.31) 1.69 (1.59, 1.8) 1.24 (1.14, 1.35)
BMI self-measured 1.35 (1.28, 1.42) 1.86 (1.74, 1.99) 1.15 (1.11, 1.2)
P value 0.755 0.400 0.113
Duration Duration of follow-up ≥ 10 years 1.28 (1.23, 1.33) 1.78 (1.67, 1.89)  
Duration of follow-up < 10 years 1.32 (1.19, 1.45) 1.76 (1.57, 1.97)  
P value 0.570 0.864  
Physical Physical activity 1.33 (1.24, 1.42) 1.75 (1.58, 1.94)  
No physical activity 1.27 (1.21, 1.32) 1.78 (1.67, 1.9)  
P value 0.261 0.780  
Hypertension Hypertension 1.36 (1.25, 1.49) 1.93 (1.74, 2.16)  
No hypertension 1.27 (1.22, 1.32) 1.72 (1.62, 1.83)  
P value 0.163 0.069  
Alcohol Alcohol 1.29 (1.21, 1.38) 1.62 (1.49, 1.75)  
No alcohol 1.22 (1.16, 1.29) 1.82 (1.72, 1.92)  
P value 0.685 0.019  
Smoking Smoking 1.25 (1.21, 1.29) 1.1 (1.04, 1.15)  
No smoking 1.1 (1.05, 1.15) 1.11 (1.07, 1.15)  
P value 0.077 0.293