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Table 3 Subgroup of the relationship between obesity, overweight, and BMI and incidence of bladder cancer

From: Associating the risk of three urinary cancers with obesity and overweight: an overview with evidence mapping of systematic reviews

Stratification criteria Overweight, RR (95% CI) Obesity, RR (95% CI) Per 5 kg/m2, RR (95% CI)
Sex Male 1.09 (0.99, 1.2) 1.1 (1.05, 1.16) 1.05 (1, 1.1)
Female 1.06 (0.99, 1.14) 1.08 (1.02, 1.14) 1.02 (0.96, 1.09)
P value 0.647 0.185 0.474
Age Age < 50 1.04 (0.97, 1.13) 1.08 (1.02, 1.14)  
Age ≥ 50 1.11 (1.03, 1.19) 1.15 (1.1, 1.2)  
P value 0.224 0.081  
Study location Asia 1.04 (0.99, 1.09) 1.02 (0.97, 1.08)  
North America 1.12 (1.03, 1.22) 1.13 (1.07, 1.19) 1.06 (1, 1.12)
Europe 1.09 (0.98, 1.2) 1.06 (1.01, 1.12) 1.02 (0.98, 1.06)
Asia versus North America (P value) 0.136 0.008  
Asia versus Europe (P value) 0.412 0.312  
North America versus Europe (P value) 0.687 0.091 0.274
Measure BMI measured 1.1 (1, 1.2) 1.09 (1.05, 1.13)  
BMI self-measured 1.12 (1.04, 1.19) 1.18 (1.1, 1.27)  
P value 0.755 0.054  
Duration Duration of follow-up < 10 years 1.07 (1.03, 1.11) 1.1 (1.05, 1.16)  
duration of follow-up ≥ 10 years 1.07 (0.98, 1.17) 1.1 (1.04, 1.15)  
P value 1.000 1.000  
Physical Physical activity 1.11 (0.99, 1.24) 1.2 (1.08, 1.33)  
No physical activity 1.03 (1, 1.07) 1.09 (1.04, 1.13)  
P value 0.212 0.093  
History Family history of cancer 1.15 (1.05, 1.26) 1.15 (1.09, 1.2)  
No family history of cancer 1.06 (1.01, 1.11) 1.09 (1.06, 1.13)  
P value 0.120 0.069  
Smoking Smoking 1.07 (0.99, 1.16) 1.1 (1.04, 1.15)  
No smoking 1.1 (1.05, 1.15) 1.11 (1.07, 1.15)  
P value 0.553 0.774  
Alcohol Alcohol 1.13 (1.04, 1.22) 1.17 (1.06, 1.3)  
No alcohol 1.06 (0.99, 1.14) 1.09 (1.05, 1.13)  
P value 0.443 0.002