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Table 1 Description of studies included for systematic review and meta-analysis (n = 46)

From: Psychotropic medication non-adherence and its associated factors among patients with major psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, country Study aim Design Population Sampling methods Sample size Scale used Response rate (%)
Ibrahim et al., Nigeria [21] To determine the socio-demographic and clinical predictors of sub-optimal MA CS Schizophrenia & depression patients SRS 390 MMAS 94.8
Alene et al., Ethiopia [22] To evaluate MA and associated factors CS Schizophrenia patients Purposive 336 CFR 87.5
Eticha et al., Ethiopia [23] To investigate factors associated with MA among patients with schizophrenia CS Schizophrenia patients Consecutive 393 MARS 97.5
Kenfe et al., Ethiopia [24] To assess the magnitude and associated factors of MNA CS Psychiatric patients Consecutive 422 MMAS 100
Hibdye et al., Ethiopia [25] To assess the prevalence and factors associated with MNA CS Bipolar disorders patients Systematic 410 MMAS 97
Anne et al., USA [26] To examine the barriers of antidepressant MA Longitudinal Depression patients Multistage 134 Brief interview 90
Hill et al., Ireland [27] To examined concurrent predictors of MNA cohort Psychosis Patients Restrictive 171 Interview & DAI NR
Moritz et al., Germany [28] To investigate attitudes toward psychotic symptoms affect MNA Cohort Schizophrenia patients Restrictive 113 Self-report questions NR
Mert et al., Turkey [29] To evaluate factors resulting in MNA CS Schizophrenic, depressive patients Patients receiving treatment 203 SCID-I NR
Novick et al., Multi-country-European [30] To explore the relationship between insight and MA CS Schizophrenia and bipolar patients SRS 903 MARS NR
Hillary, Nigeria [31] To evaluate the level of patients’ MNA and associated factors CS Psychiatric disorders patients Convenient 200 MMAS NR
Ibrahim et al., Nigeria [32] To assessed the prevalence and exclusively X-rayed medication-related factors of MNA CS Schizophrenia and bipolar patients Convenient 358 MMAS 94.2
Dibonaventura et al., USA [33] To examine the relationship between these variables among community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia CS Adults schizophrenia patients Convenience 876 MMAS NR
Gurmu et al., Ethiopia [34] To determine the statistical significance of the association of variables with adherence CS Patients who visited psychiatric clinic Convenience 209 MARS 96.3
Magura et al., USA [35] To identify predictors of MA among psychiatric patients CS Psychiatric disorders patients Patients fulfilled eligibility criteria 131 MARS NR
Kikkert et al., 4 European countries [36]. To explore factors influencing MA of schizophrenia patients qualitative study Schizophrenia patients Purposive 91 Qualitative NA
Teferra et al., Ethiopia [37] To improve understanding of the underlying reasons for MA Qualitative study Schizophrenia patients & caregivers Purposive 43 FGDs NR
Sher et al., USA [38] To evaluate the effects of caregivers’ causal beliefs about depression and their perceptions of stigma on MA longitudinal study MDD patients Multistage 47 Link’s scale NR
Mohamed et al., USA [39] To examine the strength of association of measures of both insight and attitudes toward MA CS Chronic schizophrenia patients Purposive 1432 DAI, pill count, ITAQ NR
Sava, Turkey [40] To investigate the relationship between treatment adherence and the level of MA CS Comprised of euthymic patients Patients attending their follow-up 147 Self-report question NR
Sirey, USA [41] To examine the extent to which perceived stigma affected treatment discontinuation CS Psychiatric patients Multi-stage 92 SCS NR
Sajatovic, USA [42] To examined MA among patients with bipolar disorder Longitudinal Bipolar patients All 44,637 MPR NR
Sajatovic, USA [43] To examine antipsychotic MA among bipolar disorder Longitudinal Bipolar patients All 73,964 MPR NR
John, USA [44] To investigate the factors associated with non-adherence CS Bipolar disorder patients Interactive panel 469 Adapted tool NR
Iseselo et al., Tanzania [45] To determine the psychosocial problems of mental illness Qualitative study Patients families/care givers Purposive 14 Interview and FGDs NR
Olivares, Spain [46] To evaluate long term treatment outcomes in routine clinical practice Cohort Schizophrenia patients Prospective chart review 1622 GAF score NR
Charlotte, Sweden [47] To identify predictors of MNA to antidepressant treatment CS MDD patients SRS 1031 CRF & TDM NR
Adeponle et al., Nigeria [48] To assess relationship of family engagement and MA cohort Psychiatric patients Purposive 81 Case Note review NR
Rashid, Malaysia [49] To determine the treatment related risk factors with the default of depression treatment CC MDD patients Convenient 148 Self-reported question 86
Roy, India [50] To examine factors associated with poor drug compliance. CS Psychiatric patients Consecutive 100 Checklist NR
Omran, Iran [51] To describe psychiatrists’ attributions on non-compliance CS Psychiatric patients SRS 500 Interview using checklist NR
Tara et al., Canada [52] To assess levels of MNA and determinants CS Psychiatric patients SRS 80 Self-report NR
Banerjee, India [53] To assess the correlates of MNA to unipolar patients CS Psychiatric with depression Purposive 239 MMAS 97.2
Oliver, Spain [54] To describe MA among patients with depression CS Psychiatric patients with Depression SRS 212 Medical record NR
Dave, UK [55] To assess the patterns, incidence and predictors of therapy discontinuation Cohort MDD patients (2006–2008) SRS 13,927 PHQ 91.2
Mahaye, South Africa [56] To assess the levels of MA and its associated factors CS Psychiatric patients Convenient 95 MMAS NR
Sundell, Sweden [57] To analyze whether socio-economic factors influence early discontinuation CS Depression patients SRS 6536 MARS NR
Akincigil, [58] To describe patient and provider level factors associated with treatment adherence. Cohort Psychiatric patients Convenient 4312 pharmacy claims NR
Fawad, Pakistan [11] To elucidate predictors of non-adherence CS Psychiatric patients Convenient 128 Adapted question 94.8
Prukkanone et al., Thailand [59] To quantify the adherence rate to and associated factors Cohort Depression patients Convenient 1058 MPR NR
Shigemur, Japan [60] To identify predictors of antidepressant adherence CS MDD patients Online survey 1151 Checklist NR
Bambouer et al., USA [61]. To examined compliance and faxed alerts to physicians in 2003 Cohort Psychiatric patients Purposive 13,128 MMAS NR
Demyttenaere et al., Belgium [62] To investigate of compliance in patients with MDD CS Mdd SRS 85 MEMS NR
Mascha, [63] To evaluate adherence to antidepressant among depressed patients Cohort Depression Patients Purposive 131 MMAS NR
Baldessarini et al., USA [64] To sought risk factors to guide clinical prediction of non-adherence CS Bipolar patients SRS 429 Self-report PRFs NR
Nega et al., Ethiopia [65] To assess psychotropic MNA and associated factors CS Psychiatric disorder patients SRS 613 MMAS 92.9
  1. CC case control, CS cross-sectional, CRFs case report forms, FGD focus group discussion, GAF Global Assessment of Functioning score, ITAQ Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire, MA medication adherence, MNA medication non-adherence, MMAS Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, CFR compliant fill rate, MARS Medication Adherence Rating Scale, MEMS Medication Monitoring System, MPR Medication Possession Ratio, NRR no-response rate, PRFs Patient Record Forms, PHQ Patient Health Questionnaire, RR response rate, SRS simple random sampling, SCS Stigma Coping Scale, SCID-I Structural Clinical Interview Diagnosis I, TDM therapeutic drug monitoring