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Table 2 Checklist of items for reporting systematic reviews of moxibustion*

From: PRISMA extension for moxibustion 2020: recommendations, explanation, and elaboration

Section/topic Item number PRISMA original item Extension for moxibustion Reported on page number
 Title 1 Identify the report as a systematic review, meta-analysis, or both 1a. Statement of the specific type of moxibustion treatment, such as direct moxibustion or heat-sensitive moxibustion.
1b. Statement of whether the review targets the (1) Western medicine–defined disease(s), (2) Western medicine–defined disease(s) with specific CM pattern(s), or (3) CM pattern(s), if applicable.
 Structured summary 2 Provide a structured summary including, as applicable: background; objectives; data sources; study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions; study appraisal and synthesis methods; results; limitations; conclusions and implications of key findings; systematic review registration number   
 Rationale 3 Describe the rationale for the review in the context of what is already known Describe the rationale for what is already known about moxibustion utilized for the target disease and/or CM pattern (if any). If applicable, relevant theory of CM should be included.  
 Objectives 4 Provide an explicit statement of questions being addressed with reference to participants, interventions, comparisons, outcomes, and study design (PICOS)   
 Protocol and registration 5 Indicate if a review protocol exists, if and where it can be accessed (e.g., web address), and, if available, provide registration information including registration number   
 Eligibility criteria 6 Specify study characteristics (e.g., PICOS, length of follow-up) and report characteristics (e.g., years considered, language, publication status) used as criteria for eligibility, giving rationale 6a. Describe the diagnostic criteria of the target condition in Western medicine and/or CM pattern (if any). All criteria utilized should be universally recognized, or reference(s) where detailed explanation can be found should be given.
6b. Specify the types of moxibustion to be included, such as moxa burner moxibustion, natural moxibustion, or heat-sensitive moxibustion.
6c. State whether CM-related outcome(s) were included, such as the change of degree and scope of symptoms and signs related to CM pattern, or validated pattern survey, if applicable.
 Information sources 7 Describe all information sources (e.g., databases with dates of coverage, contact with study authors to identify additional studies) in the search and date last searched   
 Search 8 Present full electronic search strategy for at least one database, including any limits used, such that it could be repeated   
 Study selection 9 State the process for selecting studies (i.e., screening, eligibility, included in the systematic review, and, if applicable, included in the meta-analysis)   
 Data collection process 10 Describe the method of data extraction from reports (e.g., piloted forms, independently, in duplicate) and any processes for obtaining and confirming data from investigators   
 Data items 11 List and define all variables for which data were sought (e.g., PICOS, funding sources) and any assumptions and simplifications made 11a. List and define the data of CM pattern(s) in detail, considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, if applicable.
11b. List and define the data of moxibustion interventions and controls (e.g., sham moxibustion), give details referring to STRICTOM and TIDieR.
11c. List and define the data of CM pattern outcome(s), considering the methods and timepoints, if applicable.
 Risk of bias in individual studies 12 Describe methods used for assessing risk of bias of individual studies (including specification of whether this was done at the study or outcome level) and how this information is to be used in any data synthesis   
 Summary measures 13 State the principal summary measures (e.g., risk ratio, difference in means)   
 Synthesis of results 14 Describe the methods of handling data and combining results of studies, if done, including measures of consistency (e.g., I2) for each meta-analysis   
 Risk of bias across studies 15 Specify any assessment of risk of bias that may affect the cumulative evidence (e.g., publication bias, selective reporting within studies)   
 Additional analyses 16 Describe methods of additional analyses (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses, meta-regression), if done, indicating which were pre-specified Describe methods of subgroup analyses in terms of different types of included moxibustion interventions and/or included CM pattern participants (if applicable), if done, indicating which were pre-specified.  
 Study selection 17 Give numbers of studies screened, assessed for eligibility, and included in the review, with reasons for exclusions at each stage, ideally with a flow diagram   
 Study characteristics 18 For each study, present characteristics for which data were extracted (e.g., study size, PICOS, follow-up period) and provide the citations 18a. Present characteristics for the data of participants, which include CM pattern(s), considering (1) diagnostic criteria; (2) baseline data, if applicable.
18b. Present characteristics for the data of moxibustion intervention(s) and controls (e.g., sham moxibustion) for each study referring to STRICTOM and TIDieR.
18c. Present characteristics for the data of outcomes which include CM pattern(s), considering (1) name and measuring methods; (2) measuring timepoints and length of follow-up, if applicable.
 Risk of bias within studies 19 Present data on the risk of bias of each study and, if available, any outcome-level assessment (see item 12)   
 Results of individual studies 20 For all outcomes considered (benefits or harms), present, for each study: (a) simple summary data for each intervention group and (b) effect estimates and confidence intervals, ideally with a forest plot   
 Synthesis of results 21 Present results of each meta-analysis done, including confidence intervals and measures of consistency   
 Risk of bias across studies 22 Present results of any assessment of the risk of bias across studies (see item 15)   
 Additional analysis 23 Give results of additional analyses, if done (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses, meta-regression [see item 16]) Give results of subgroup analyses based on the different types of moxibustion interventions and participants with CM patterns (if any), if done.  
 Summary of evidence 24 Summarize the main findings including the strength of evidence for each main outcome; consider their relevance to key groups (e.g., health care providers, users, and policymakers)   
 Limitations 25 Discuss limitations at study and outcome level (e.g., risk of bias) and at review level (e.g., incomplete retrieval of identified research, reporting bias)   
 Conclusions 26 Provide a general interpretation of the results in the context of other evidence, and implications for future research   
 Funding 27 Describe sources of funding for the systematic review and other support (e.g., supply of data); role of funders for the systematic review   
  1. *The original PRISMA items are provided; elaborations for moxibustion interventions are in italicized text. We strongly recommend reading this checklist in conjunction with the PRISMA 2009 explanation and elaboration for important clarifications of the 27 items of PRISMA [32]