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Table 2 Secondary outcomes

From: Zolpidem reduces pain intensity postoperatively: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of hypnotic medicines on post-operative pain intensity

  Time point n Outcome Weighted mean difference (WMD) Confidence interval p value
Sleep outcomes       
 Z-drugs in with analgesic medicines versus the same analgesic medicines alone Immediate 20 (24) Sleep quality (0–10 NRS) − 1.60 − 2.91 to − 0.3 p ≤ .01
  Immediate 141 (28) Sleep efficiency (PSG) − 0.86 0.51 to 1.20 p ≤ .01
 Melatonin versus placebo Short-term 24 (35) Sleep quality (Richards Campbell Questionnaire) − 0.09 − 0.28 to 0.09 p = 0.32
  Short-term 121 (31) Sleep quality (0–100 VAS) − 0.09 − 0.27 to 0.45 p = 0.51
 Benzodiazepines versus placebo Immediate 344 (23) (30) Sleep quality (0–100 VAS) 1.14 1.63 to 0.65 p < .01
  Short-term 250 (23) Sleep quality (0–100 VAS) 0.60 0 to 1.20 p = 0.5
Fatigue       
 Z-drugs with analgesic medicines versus the same analgesic medicines alone Immediate 49 (22) (24) Fatigue (0–10 NRS) − 0.59 − 0.59 to 0.89 p = 0.56
  Short-term 70 (22) (25) Fatigue (0–10 NRS) 0.29 − 0.21 to 0.78 p = 0.25
 Melatonin versus placebo Immediate 121 (31) Fatigue (0–100 VAS) − 0.40 − 1.16 to 0.36 p = 0.30
Wellbeing       
  Immediate 121 (31) General wellbeing (0–100 VAS) − 0.10 − 0.91 to 0.71 p = 0.81