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Table 1 List of aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs)

From: Use of powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) by healthcare workers for preventing highly infectious viral diseases—a systematic review of evidence

Respiratory aerosols Blood or tissue fluid aerosols
Open suctioning of airways Surgical procedures in which high-speed tissue drills are used in the airway (e.g., ear nose and throat surgery, head and neck surgery)
Sputum induction Extensive dental procedures
Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage  
Endotracheal intubation and extubation  
Face-mask ventilation  
Non-invasive ventilation (e.g., BiPAP, CPAP)  
Ventilation when the airway is not sealed  
Tracheostomy  
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation  
Nasogastric tube insertion  
Dental drilling procedures  
  1. Abbreviations: BiPAP bilevel positive ventilation pressure, CPAP continuous positive airway pressure
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