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Table 1 Summary of included trials of surgical and non-surgical treatment of fractures

From: Surgical or non-surgical treatment of traumatic skeletal fractures in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of benefits and harms

Fracture type Author, year, country Age, % female Surgical treatment (n) Did not undergo surgery after randomization (n) Non-surgical treatment (n) Received surgical treatment in control group (n) Benefit/harm outcomes Follow-up time (month)
Calcaneal, displaced intraarticular Agren, 2013, Sweden [17] 48.5 years, 28.0% 42 0 40 0 Pain, disability, QoL 12 months
Buckley, 2002 [18] and O’Brien, Canada [19] 40.0 years, 10.3% 206 0 218 0 Pain, QoL 24 months
Griffin, 2014, UK [20] 46.4 years, 15.9% 68 5 75 3 Disability, QoL SAE 24 months
Ibrahim, 2007, UK [21] 48.5 years, 19.2% 25 0 31 0 Pain, disability 180 months
Nouraei, 2011, Iran [22] 49 years, 36 0 36 0 Pain 6 months
Thordarson, 1996, USA [23] 35.4 years, 19.2% 16 0 14 0 Disability 16 months
Clavicular, displaced midshaft Ahrens, 2017, UK [24] 36.2 years, 13.6% 143 11 131 16 Disability, SAE 9 months
Chen, 2011c, China [25] 37.7 years, 46.7% 30 0 30 0 Disability, SAE 15 months
Judd, 2009, USA [26] 26.5 years, 87.7% 29 0 28 0 Disability, SAE 12 months
Koch, 2008, Germany [27] 35.4 years, 33.8% 35 0 33 0 Pain, SAE 1 month
Kumar, 2018, India [28] N/A 40 0 40 0 SAE 12 months
McKee, 2007, Canada [29] 33.5 years, 21.6% 66 1 64 1 Disability, SAE 12 months
Melean, 2015, Chile [30] 37.6 years, 34 0 38 4 SAE 4 months
Mirzatolooei, 2011, Iran [31] 35.7 years, 18.0% 29 3 31 0 Disability, SAE 12 months
Qvist, 2018, Denmark [32] 39.5 years, 18.5% 74 1 66 9 Disability, SAE 12 months
Robinson, 2013, UK [33] 32.4 years, 12.5% 95 0 92 13 Disability, QoL, SAE 12 months
Smekal, 2009, Austria [34] 37.7 years, 13.3% 33 0 32 3 Disability, SAE 6 months
Tamaoki, 2017, Brazil [35] 32.5 years, 14.5% 59 0 56 2 Pain, disability, SAE 12 months
Virtanen, 2012, Finland [36] 36.7 years, 13.3% 28 0 31 1 Pain, disability, SAE 12 months
Woltz, 2017, Netherlands [37] 37.8 years, 8.8% 86 0 62 12 Disability, QoL, SAE 12 months
Clavicular, other Dugar, 2013, India [38] N/A 15 0 15 0 SAE 12 months
Yadav, 2015, India [39] 33.1 years, 20.0% 13 0 12 0 SAE 3 months
Femoral, caput Chen, 2011a, China [40] 37.5 years, 18.8% 8 0 8 0 SAE 38 months
Chen, 2011b, China [41] 38.7 years, 29.2% 12 0 10 2 SAE 39 months
Humeral shaft Matsunaga, 2017, Brazil [42] 38.7 years, 33.6% 52 0 10 48 Pain, disability, QoL, SAE 12 months
Humeral, proximal Boons, 2012, Netherlands [43] 78.2 years, 94.0% 25 0 25 0 Pain, disability, SAE 12 months
Fjalestad, 2014, Norway [44] 72.6 years, 88.0% 25 0 24 1 Disability, QoL SAE 12 months
Olerud, 2011a, Sweden [45] 73.9 years, 81.4% 27 0 27 1 Pain, Disability, QoL, SAE 12 months
Olerud, 2011b, Sweden [46] 76.7 years, 85.5% 30 0 30 0 Pain, disability, QoL, SAE 12 months
Rangan, 2015, UK [47] 66.0 years, 76.8% 109 16 112 13 Disability, QoL, SAE 12 months
Zyto, 1997, Sweden [48] 74.0 years, 87.5% 20 0 20 5 Pain, disability 50 months
Malleolar, other Makwana, 2001, UK [49] 66.9 years, 72.1% 22 0 14 8 Pain, disability 27 months
Willet, 2016, UK [50] 70.6 years, 74.2% 302 7 277 34 Pain, disability, QoL, SAE 6 months
Malleolar, stable Mittal, 2017, Australia and New Zealand [51] 39.0 years, 51.9% 72 8 78 2 Disability, QoL, SAE 12 months
Malleolar, trimalleolar Salai, 2000, Israel [52] 78.3 years, 75.0% 46 0 8 30 Pain, disability 38 months
Malleolar, unstable Sanders, 2012, Canada [53] 41.0 years, 49.4% 41 0 39 1 Disability, QoL, SAE 12 months
Metacarpal, 5th metacarpal neck Sletten, 2015, Norway [54 ] 27.0 years, 82.3% 38 4 43 0 Disability, SAE 12 months
Strub, 2010, Switzerland [55] 30.0 years, 5.0% 20 0 20 0 SAE 12 months
Metatarsal, 5th metatarsal neck Lee, 2016, South Korea [56] 41.7 years, 55.2% 9 0 9 0 Pain 2 months
Wu, 2018, China [57] 27.1 years, 36.6% 23 0 22 1 Pain, SAE 12 months
Radial, distal Abbaszadegan, 1990, Sweden [58] 63.0 years, 76.6% 23 0 24 0 Pain, disability 12 months
Arora, 2011, Austria [59] 76.7 years, 75.3% 45 0 45 0 Pain, disability, SAE 12 months
Azzopardi, 2005, UK [60] 71.5 years, 88.9% 30 0 27 0 Pain, disability, QoL, SAE 12 months
Földhazy, 2010, Sweden [61] 71.6 years, 89.8% 28 0 31 0 Pain, disability, SAE 12 months
Kreder, 2006, Canada and USA [62] 52.9 years, 65.5% 54 0 54 5 Pain, disability 12 months
Mardani Kivi, 2011, Iran [63] 50.8 years, 13.0% 99 0 93 6 SAE 3 months
McQueen, 2008, UK [64] 29.4 years, 16.7% 30 0 30 0 SAE 12 months
Wong, 2010, Hong Kong [65] 70.5 years, 81.7% 31 0 31 0 Pain, disability, QoL, SAE 12 months
Rib, flail chest Marasco, 2013, Australia [66] 58.5 years, 13.0% 22 1 23 0 Pain, disability, QoL, SAE 6 months
Scaphoid, waist Arora, 2007, Austria [67] 33.0 years, 27.3% 23 0 24 0 Pain, disability, SAE 6 months
Clementson, 2015, Sweden [68] 31.4 years, 18.4% 13 1 24 0 disability, SAE 12 months
Dias, 2005, UK [69] 29.5 years, 10.2% 44 0 37 7 Pain 12 months
Vinnars, 2008, Sweden [70] 30.5 years, 22.7% 40 3 41 1 Disability 120 months
Thoraco-lumbal, traumatic compression Piazzolla, 2011, Italy [71] 39.9 years, 36.0% 24 0 26 0 Pain, disability, SAE 12 months
Shen, 2001, Taiwan [72] 43.2 years, 48.8% 33 7 43 0 Pain, disability 12 months
Siebenga, 2006, Netherlands [73] 41.8 years, 37.5% 18 0 16 0 Pain, disability 52 months
Wood, 2003, USA [74] 41.4 years, 31.9% 26 0 26 1 Pain, disability, QoL 46 months
Tibial shaft Karladani, 2000, Sweden [75] 39.0 years, 32.1% 27 0 12 17 Pain, Disability, QoL 12 months
Granetzny, 2005, Egypt [76] 38.2 years, 22.5% 20 0 20 0 SAE 2 months
Ulnar shaft Hussain, 2018, India [77] 38.9 years, 13.3% 20 0 17 3 Disability, SAE 12 months
Ulnar, olecranon Duckworth, 2017, UK [78] 82.9 years, 89.5% 11 0 1 7 Disability, SAE 12 months
  1. QoL quality of life; SAE serious adverse events