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Table 6 GRADE analysis: summary of findings

From: Vitamin B—Can it prevent cognitive decline? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Number of participants (studies) Study limitations (risk of bias) Publication bias Imprecision Inconsistency Indirectness Overall certainty of evidence
Main outcome: overall cognition (measured with TICS-m and MMSE)
 14.250 (7 RCTs) No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations ++++
High
Secondary outcome: processing speed
 1.038 (2 RCTs) No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations ++++
High
Secondary outcome: memory
 705 (3 RCTs) No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations ++++
High
Secondary outcome: attention
 299 (1 RCT) No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations ++++
High
Secondary outcome: verbal ability
 211 (1 RCT) No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations ++++
High
Secondary outcome: executive function
 115 (1 RCT) Serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations +++
Moderate
Additional analysis: effects in favor of placebo
 610 (3 RCTs) Moderate limitations Moderate limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations +++
Moderate