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Table 3 Overview: trial and intervention details

From: Vitamin B—Can it prevent cognitive decline? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Trial characteristics Intervention
Study Country Design n = participants in eligible (subgroup) cognitive testing* B vitamins supplemented Dosage Duration of treatment (Last) follow-up
Andreeva et al. [52]a France RCT 871 Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 Daily:
Folate 0.56 mg
B6 3 mg
B12 0.02 mg
4 years End of treatment
Brady et al. [53] The USA RCT 659 Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 Daily:
Folic acid 40 mg
B6 100 mg
B12 2 mg
5 years After 4 and 5 years of treatment
Bryan et al. [39] Australia RCT 211 Folate, B6, B12 Daily:
Folate 750 μg
Or daily:
B6 20 mg
Or daily:
B12 15 μg
5 weeks End of treatment
Chan et al. [40] The USA RCT 115 Nutriceutical formula also containing folic acid and B12 Daily:
Folic acid 400 μg, B12 6 μg
3 months End of treatment
Cockle et al. [41] The UK RCT 139 Multivitamin supplement also containing folic acid, B6, B12 Daily:
Folic acid 600 mg, B6 22 mg, B12 0.03 mg
24 weeks End of treatment
Dangour et al. [47] The UK RCT 201 B12 Daily:
B12 1 mg
1 year End of treatment
Durga et al. [49] Netherlands RCT 818 Folic acid Daily:
Folic acid 800 μg
3 years End of treatment
Eussen et al. [48] Netherlands RCT 195 Vitamin B12 or vitamin B12 + folate Daily:
B12 1000 μg
Or daily:
B12 1000 μg
Folic acid 400 μg
24 weeks End of treatment
Ford et al. [54] Australia RCT 299 Folic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 Daily:
Folic acid 2 mg
B6 25 mg
B12 400 μg
2 years End of treatment
Hankey et al. [55]a Netherlands RCT 2214 Folic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 Daily:
Folic acid 2.5 mg
B6 25 mg
B12 500 μg
3.4 years End of treatment
Kang et al. [56] The USA RCT 2009 Folic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 Daily:
Folic acid 2.5 mg
B6 25 mg
B12 500 μg
6.6 years End of treatment
Kwok et al. [57] China RCT 271 Vitamin B12 Daily:
B12 1000 μg
27 months End of treatment
Lewerin et al. [42] Sweden RCT 195 Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 Daily:
Folate 0.8 mg
B6 3 mg
B12 0.5 mg
4 months End of treatment
McMahon et al. [50] New Zealand RCT 276 Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 Daily:
Folate 1000 μg
B6 10 mg
B12 500 μg
2 years End of treatment
Pathansali et al. [43] The UK RCT 24 Folic acid Daily:
Folic acid 5 mg
4 weeks End of treatment
Pipingas et al. [44] Australia RCT 138 Multivitamin formula also containing folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 Daily:
Folic acid 500 μg
B6 41.14 mg
B12 50 μg
16 weeks End of treatment
Stott et al. [58]a The UK RCT 23 Folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 as one of various combinations Daily:
Folic acid 2.5 mg
B6 25 mg
B12 400 μg
12 weeks After 1 year
Van der Zwaluw et al. [51] Netherlands RCT 2919 Folic acid, vitamin B12 Daily:
Folic acid 400 μg
B12 500 μg
2 years End of treatment
Walker et al. [45] Australia RCT 900 Folic acid, vitamin B12 Daily:
Folic acid 400 μg
B12 100 μg
2 years End of treatment
Wolters et al. [46] Germany RCT 220 Multivitamin capsules also containing folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 Daily:
Folic acid 400 μg
B6 3.4 mg
B12 9 μg
6 months End of treatment
  1. aFor studies that met our inclusion criteria only in a specific subgroup, n indicates the number of participants in said subgroup