| • Anti-infectious agents including antiviral treatments such as remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin.|
• Immunomodulators such as interferon alpha, interferon beta, nivolumab, and tocilizumab.
• Non-specific immunomodulators such as corticosteroids, polyclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and colchicine.
• Supportive treatments for patients admitted to intensive care, such as high-flow nasal canula, non-invasive ventilation, protective mechanical ventilation, and extra corporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).
• General interventions for viral infection such as vitamin C, zinc, and selenium.