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Table 5 Cognitive measures in children at the end of the study by Kuriyan, 2016

From: The impact of vitamin D food fortification and health outcomes in children: a systematic review and meta-regression

Cognitive measures vitD fortification Control P value
CCT—no. of correct responses 57.8 ± 4.5 58.4 ± 2.5 0.72
CCT—time taken for correct response (seconds) 88.3 ± 23.4 86.8 ± 27.8 0.57
CTT—trial A no. of correct responses 24.8 ± 0.6 24.9 ± 0.4 0.74
CTT—trial B no. of correct responses 23.4 ± 4.1 24.3 ± 2.0 0.68
Time taken trial A correct response (s) 111.1 ± 45.7 109.7 ± 49.1 0.07
Time taken trial B correct response (s) 194.3 ± 73.1 188.6 ± 77.8 0.71
Word order test—no. of responses 17.2 ± 3.2 17.7 ± 3.7 0.45
Portues maze test—test age (months) 188.1 ± 25.2 191.9 ± 22.5 0.41
  1. Data are shown as the mean ± SD
  2. Trials A and B are subsets of the CTT
  3. Color cancellation test (CCT) (Kapur, 1974): a measure of selective attention/visual scanning and activation and inhibition of a rapid response. It consists of 150 circles in five different colors, i.e., red, blue, yellow, black, and gray. The participants are required to cancel only the yellow and red circles as fast as they can. The time taken in seconds to complete the task is the score
  4. Color trails test (CTT): a measure of focused attention. Children aged 5 to 16 years show a steady age progression on this test. It is sensitive enough to reflect frontal lobe damage
  5. Word order test: it evaluates phonological loop component of short-term memory. It is responsible for holding verbal information for short period of time
  6. The Porteus maze test: a non-language test of executive functioning, planning, and inhibition; it is a nonverbal test of mental ability to measure a nonverbal executive functioning, planning, inhibition, patience, and mental alertness in a novel and concrete performance task; it is particularly accurate at differentiating lower levels of cognitive ability