Skip to main content

Table 3 The effect of interventions on patients’ satisfaction, beliefs and re-consultation

From: Systematic review of patient-oriented interventions to reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections

StudyPatients’ satisfaction1Antibiotic Beliefs2Re-consultation3
Delayed prescription
 Arroll et al. [34] (delayed vs. immediate)Intervention 96%
Control 94%
OR = 1.47 (CI 0.32 to 6.85)
Intervention 76%
Control 76%
OR = 1.02 (CI 0.45 to 2.28)
Intervention 73%
Control 65%
OR = 1.50 (CI 0.71 to 3.17)
 Little et al. [35] (delayed vs. immediate)Intervention 93%
Control 96%
OR = 0.61 (CI 0.25 to 1.49)
Intervention 60%
Control 87%
OR = 0.22 (CI 0.13 to 0.36)
Intervention 57%
Control 79%
OR = 0.35 (CI 0.22 to 0.55)
 Little et al. [36] (delayed vs. immediate)Intervention 77%
Control 91%
OR = 0.32 (CI 0.16 to 0.65)
Intervention 46%
Control 76%
OR = 0.24 (CI 0.14 to 0.40)
Intervention 63%
Control 83%
OR = 0.35 (CI 0.20 to 0.62)
 Little et al. [37]4 (different variants of delayed prescriptions vs. no antibiotic)Delayed re-contact 74%
Post-dated 80%
Delayed collection 88%
Delayed patient-led 89%
Likelihood ratio test X2 = 2.38 (P value = 0.67)
Delayed re-contact 74%
Post-dated 73%
Delayed collection 72%
Delayed patient-led 66%
Likelihood ratio test X2 = 1.62 (P value = 0.80)
Delayed re-contact 18%
Post-dated 10%
Delayed collection 14%
Delayed patient-led 14%
Likelihood ratio test X2 = 2.97 (P value = 0.56)
 Poza Abad5 et al. [39] (delayed collection vs. immediate and delayed patient-led vs. immediate)P value6 = 0.14Delayed collection 84.4%
Immediate 91.8%
OR = 0.37 (CI 0.14 to 0.99)
Delayed patient-led 81%
Immediate 91.8%
OR = 0.37 (CI 0.14 to 0.98)
Delayed collection 69.1%
Immediate 85.7%
OR = 0.62 (CI 0.19 to 2.06)
Delayed patient-led 69.0%
Immediate 85.7%
OR = 0.35(CI 0.1 to 1.30)
Patient/public information and intervention
 Francis et al. [42] (interactive booklet vs. control)Intervention 90.2%
Control 93.5%
OR = 0.64 (CI 0.33 to 1.22)
 Intervention 55.3%
Control 76.4%
OR = 0.34 (CI 0.20 to 0.57)
 Little et al. [45] (online educational program vs. control)  Intervention 19.3%
Control 19.3%
OR = 0.93 (CI 0.73 to 1.16)
  1. 1The outcome was reported as “satisfaction with the consultation” in all studies except for Little [36] study, in which it was reported as “satisfaction with the treatment approach”. OR > 1 means more satisfaction in the intervention group compared to the control group. OR < 1 means less satisfaction in the intervention group compared to the control group
  2. 2The outcome was belief in the effectiveness of antibiotics for URTIs. OR < 1 means less belief in the effectiveness of antibiotics in the intervention group compared to the control group. OR > 1 means more belief in the effectiveness of antibiotics in the intervention group compared to the control group
  3. 3Re-consultation was reported only in Little [37] (within 1 month after the consultation) and Little [45] (within 1 year after enrolment) studies; all other studies reported the intention to re-consult in future. OR < 1 means less re-consultation in the intervention group compared to the control group. OR > 1 means more re-consult in the intervention group compared to the control group
  4. 4All intervention groups (different variants of delayed prescriptions) were compared to “no antibiotic”
  5. 5The P values are reported to compare the difference between delayed collection, delayed patient-led, immediate prescription, and no prescription
  6. 6No more data were available