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Table 3 Disclosure and reporting in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trial funding source, author financial ties to the pharmaceutical industry, and author employment by the pharmaceutical industry

From: Reporting of financial conflicts of interest in meta-analyses of drug trials published in high-impact medical journals: comparison of results from 2017 to 2018 and 2009

AuthorJournalNumber of meta-analyzed RCTsMeta-analysis reported RCT fundingPlace in publication of RCT fundingMeta-analysis reported RCT author-industry financial tiesPlace in publication of RCT author-industry financial tiesMeta-analysis reported RCT author-industry employmentQuality or risk assessment method of meta-analysis
General medicine
Feller et al. [23]JAMA21Yes, for each included studyText (as summary statement—for some but not all included studies—RCTs referenced)
Characteristics of included studies table (in article—for each included study)
NoN/ANoCochrane
McIntyre et al. [24]JAMA23Yes, for each included studyCharacteristics of included studies table (in supplementary material—web link only—no mention in text)Yes, for some but not all included studiesaCharacteristics of included studies table (in supplementary material—web link only—no mention in text)NoCochrane
Zheng et al. [25]JAMA236NoN/ANoN/ANoCochrane
Cipriani et al. [26]Lancet522Yes, for each included studybText (as summary statement—RCTs not referenced)
Characteristics of included studies (in supplementary material—web link only—funder name not mentioned)
NocN/ANoCochrane
Gayet-Ageron et al. [27]Lancet2Yes, for each included studyAbstractNoN/ANoCochrane
Jinatongthai et al. [28]Lancet40NoN/ANoN/ANoCochrane
Alibhai et al. [29]Ann Intern Med23Yes, for each included studyRisk of bias assessment text section (as summary statement—for some but not all included studies—RCTs not referenced)
Risk of bias assessment table (in article—for each included study)
NoN/ANoCochrane
Wilson et al. [30]Ann Intern Med10Yes, for each included studydRisk of bias assessment text section (as summary statement—RCTs referenced)
Characteristics of studies included table (in article—for each included study)
NoN/ANoCochrane
Baxi et al. [31]BMJ13NoN/ANoN/ANoCochrane
López-López et al. [32]BMJ23Yes, for each included studyText (as summary statement—RCTs not referenced)
Characteristics of included studies table (for each included study—in supplementary material—web link only)
NoN/ANoCochrane
Sadeghirad et al. [33]BMJ10NoN/ANoN/ANoCochrane
General medicine total 9237/11 (63.6%) 1/11 (9.1%) 0/11 (0.0%) 
Specialty medicine
Oncology
McCarthy et al. [34]J Clin Oncol3Yes, for each included study“Support” section at end of articleNoN/ANoNone
van Beurden-Tan et al. [35]J Clin Oncol17NoN/ANoN/ANoNone
Abdel-Qadir et al. [36]Ann Oncol16NoN/ANoN/ANoCochrane
Cardiology
Siontis et al. [37]Circulation4NoN/ANoN/ANoNone
Renda et al. [38]J Am Coll Cardiol4NoN/ANoN/ANoCochrane
Lau et al. [39]J Am Coll Cardiol7Yes, for some but not all studieseFootnote on first 3 pages of articleNoN/ANoNone
Respiratory medicine
Verberkt et al. [40]Eur Resp J22NoN/ANoN/ANoCochrane
Ding et al. [41]J Thorac Oncol16NoN/ANoN/ANoNone
Lee et al. [42]J Thorac Oncol3NoN/ANoN/ANoNone
Endocrinology
Bethel et al. [43]Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol4NoN/ANoN/ANoJadad
de Carvalho et al. [44]Diabetes Care20NoN/ANoN/ANoCochrane
Maiorino et al. [45]Diabetes Care26Yes, for each included studyText (as summary statement—RCTs not referenced)
Characteristics of included studies table (in article—for each included study)
NoN/ANoCochrane, Jadad
Gastroenterology
Khera et al. [46]Gastroenterology28NoN/ANoN/ANoCochrane
Nelson et al. [47]Gut21NoN/ANoN/ANoCochrane
Ford et al. [48]Gut13NoN/ANoN/ANoCochrane
Specialty medicine total: 2043/15 (20.0%) 0/15 (0.0%) 0/15 (0.0%) 
Cochrane database of systematic reviews
Tenforde et al. [49]Cochrane Database Syst Rev13Yes, for each included studyRisk of bias assessment in main text (as a summary statement—for some but not all included studies—RCTs referenced)f
Risk of bias assessment table in characteristics of included studies section (supplementary material—in article—for some but not all included studies)g
Characteristics of included studies table (supplementary material—in article—for each included study)
Yes, for each included studyRisk of bias assessment in main text (as a summary statement—for some but not all included studies—studies referenced)f
Risk of bias assessment table in characteristics of included studies section (supplementary material—in article—for some but not all included studies)h
Characteristics of included studies table (supplementary material—in article—for each included study)
NoCochrane
McNicol et al. [50]Cochrane Database Syst Rev11Yes, for each included studyCharacteristics of included studies table (supplementary material—in article)NoN/ANoCochrane
Normansell et al. [51]Cochrane Database Syst Rev4Yes, for each included studyText (as a summary statement—RCTs referenced)
Characteristics of included studies table (supplementary material—in article—for each included study)
NoiN/ANoCochrane
Cochrane total 283/3 (100%) 1/3 (33.3%) 0/3 (0.0%) 
Total 115513/29 (44.8%) 2/29 (6.9%) 0/29 (0.0%) 
  1. FCOI financial conflict of interest, N/A not applicable, RCT randomized controlled trial
  2. aAuthor FCOIs are reported for 21 out of 23 RCTs. Reporting of “All authors submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure” for 1 study was not considered reporting of author FCOIs. Reporting of “Funding source: Ferring pharmaceuticals, patents related to the use of vasopressin in septic shock” for 1 study was not considered reporting of author FCOIs since not specified and was only coded as RCT funding source reported
  3. bThe authors considered funding for included studies as “sponsored” when it was indicated anywhere in the text that the study was funded/sponsored by the company which manufactured or marketed the drug in question, or if 1 or more of the authors were affiliated with the company in question, or if the data came from the documents provided by or obtained from the company website. Sponsorship was rated as “unclear” if the authors only listed the names of the companies in question in their declaration of conflicts of interest. Names of the pharmaceutical companies that sponsored trials were not reported
  4. cAuthor FCOIs with manufacturer of researched drug, among funding from manufacturer, or data obtained from manufacturer, qualified a study of “sponsored,” but no further specification was given. A study being “sponsored” was only coded as having funding sources reported
  5. dAuthors reported RCT funding of industry, not industry, or not reported, and sponsors’ names were not mentioned
  6. eFunding was reported for 5 out of 7 included RCTs
  7. fIn risk of bias assessment text section, the summarized “other bias” optional Cochrane domain included both direct support from pharmaceutical manufacturers of study drugs and authors receiving research support from manufacturers without the role of the drug companies clearly stated. Studies are referenced, but it is not mentioned for which FCOI (direct support from industry and/or author support from industry)
  8. gIn the “other bias” optional Cochrane domain in risk of bias assessment table, located in the characteristics of included studies section, funding is only reported for RCTs sponsored by pharmaceutical industry, with no mention of the name of the pharmaceutical company, which is only mentioned in the “Notes” section of the characteristics of included studies table
  9. hIn “other bias” optional Cochrane domain in risk of bias assessment table, located in the characteristics of included studies section, author FCOIs are only reported for RCTs where FCOIs are listed
  10. iAuthors stated that they extracted data on “notable conflicts of interest of trial authors” but no information on included RCTs author FCOIs was reported in the text or supplementary materials