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Table 3 The secondary endpoint of type 2 diabetes mellitus and their measurement

From: Systematic review and meta-analysis protocol for efficacy and safety of Momordica charantia L. on animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Chronic hyperglycemiaGlycosylated hemoglobin A1c
Insulin resistanceHOMA-IR, hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp
β cell dysfunctionIGT, HOMA-B, Serum insulin concentration
β cell massWhole pancreas insulin content
Lypolysis/obese/dyslipidaemiaFFAs, TGs, TC, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol
Liver glycogenLiver glycogen
Safety profile
WeightWeight of animal
Liver profileALT, AST, ALP, Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase
Kidney profileUrea, urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin total
MortalityNumber of animals died*
IonsCalcium, phosphorus
Hematological parametersHaemoglobin, packed cell volume, total red blood cells, total white blood cells, differential white cell counts, platelet count, and absolute red blood cell indices
  1. AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALP alkaline phosphatase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, FFAs free fat acids, HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-B homeostatic model assessment of β cell function, IGT impaired glucose tolerance, LDL low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TC total cholesterol, TGs triglycerides. *Event count, all other outcomes are continuous data