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Table 1 Population, intervention, comparator, outcome, and study design (PICOS) criteria for the systematic reviews

From: Performance and usability of machine learning for screening in systematic reviews: a comparative evaluation of three tools

CriteriaAntipsychotics [20]BronchiolitisVisual Acuity [21]
PopulationChildren and young adults aged ≤ 24 years experiencing a psychiatric disorder or behavioral issues outside the context of a disorderInfants and young children aged < 24 months experiencing their first episode of wheeze or diagnosed with bronchiolitis or RSVCommunity-dwelling adults aged ≥ 65 years with unrecognized impaired visual acuity or vision-related functional limitations
InterventionAny Food and Drug Administration-approved first- or second-generation antipsychoticAny bronchodilator, any corticosteroid, hypertonic saline, oxygen therapy, antibiotics, helioxVision screening tests (alone or within multicomponent screening/assessment) performed by primary healthcare professionals
ComparatorsPlacebo, no treatment, any other antipsychotic, the same antipsychotic in a different dosePlacebo, usual care, no treatment, normal saline, or another intervention of interestNo screening, delayed screening, attention control, screening involving all components of intervention except vision component, usual care
OutcomesIntermediate and effectiveness outcomes, adverse effects and major adverse effects, adverse effects limiting treatment, specific adverse events, persistence and reversibility of adverse effectsOutpatient admissions, inpatient length of stay, change in clinical score, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, heart rate, pulmonary function, adverse events, escalation of care, length of illness, duration of oxygen therapyBenefits (e.g., mortality, adverse consequences of poor vision), harms (e.g., serious adverse events), implementation factors (e.g., uptake of referrals)
Study designsRCTs and nRCTs, controlled cohort studies, controlled before-after studiesRCTsRCTs, controlled experimental and observational studies
  1. nRCT non-randomized controlled trial, RCT randomized controlled trial, RSV respiratory syncytial virus