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Table 3 Weighted national prevalence of pre-DM in childbearing age women in MENA countries

From: Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies in women of childbearing age in the Middle East and North Africa, 2000–2018

Country/population typeNo. of studiesTested samplepre-DMpre-DM prevalence Heterogeneity measures
Range (%)Median (%)Weighted %95% CISubgroup
p value
Q (p value)1I2 (%)295% prediction interval (%)3
 General population4749982220.0––4.70.680.3 (p < 0.001)92.50.0–10.0
 Pregnant448325871.7––19.2483.1 (p < 0.001)99.40.0–90.0
 Non-pregnant with a history of GDM217380.9––6.8NENENE
Study period5
 2000–20091298938160.0––8.20.1707.7 (p < 0.001)98.40.0–30.0
 Overall71310,0038170.0––7.6 717.5 (p < 0.001)98.30.0–30.0
 General population43137034040.0–27.315.725.515.4–37.1NE25.5 (p < 0.001)92.2NE
Study period5
 2000–20091401640.0NENENE< 0.001NENENE
 2010–20182133232415.6–27.421.524.121.8–26.435.9 (p < 0.001)NENE
 General population4 (2012–2013)1711014.1NENENENENENENE
 General population4 (2000–2009)432563748.2–30.910.413.87.7–21.4NE96.8 (p < 0.001)96.80.0–60.0
 General population4 (2000–2009)211310.0––3.5NENENENE
 General population4 (2000–2009)32088826.4––7.9NENENENE
 General population4 (2007–2008)347140.0––2.4NENENENE
Saudi Arabia
 General population41152573580.0––10.3NE154.2 (p < 0.001)93.50.0–20.0
Study period5
 2000–2009546293251.7––15.90.1139.4 (p < 0.001)97.10.0–40.0
 2010–20186628330.0––7.813.0 (p < 0.001)61.50.0–20.0
United Arab Emirates
 General population41024,72360715.0–35.313.915.510.5–21.2< 0.001942.5 (p < 0.001)99.00.0–40.0
 Non-pregnant with a history of GDM1549305.5NENENENENENE
Study period5
 2000–2009429042055.0––8.3< 0.0018.7 (p < 0.001)65.60.0–10.0
 Overlapping6421,939584420.1–35.325.716.720.5–33.5296.9 (p < 0.001)99.00.0–60.0
 Overall71125,27261015.0–35.312.614.49.5–20.0 1104.5 (p < 0.001)99.10.0–40.0
 General population4 (before 2010)15423.7NENENENENENENE
All countries
 General population44542,40474640.0––11.00.64478.6 (p < 0.001)99.00.0–40.0
 Pregnant448325871.7––19.2483.1 (p < 0.001)99.40.0–90.0
 Non-pregnant with a history of GDM3722380.9––10.4NENENE
Study period5
 2000–20093523,44818250.0––7.8< 0.0011188.4 (p < 0.001)97.10.0–20.0
 2010–20181224604190.0––15.2180.4 (p < 0.001)93.90.0–40.0
 Overlapping6522,05058450.9–35.321.920.715.0–27.1376.6 (p < 0.001)98.90.0–50.0
 WHO guidelines1911,3358370.0––7.9< 0.001200.6 (p < 0.001)91.00.0–20.0
 ADA guidelines2333,46971480.0––16.13036.3 (p < 0.001)99.00.0–40.0
 Carpenter and Coustan32416701.7––5.4NENENE
 Medical records6738340.0––6.817.9 (p < 0.001)66.50.0–20.0
Sample size
 < 10010586440.0––9.20.332.3 (p < 0.001)72.10.0–20.0
 ≥ 1004247,37280450.0––11.55102.9 (p < 0.001)99.20.0–40.0
Overall105247,95880890.0––10.4 5176.6 (p < 0.001)99.00.0–30.0
  1. 1Q: Cochran’s Q statistic is a measure assessing the existence of heterogeneity in estimates of pre-DM prevalence
  2. 2I2: a measure assessing the percentage of between-study variation that is due to differences in pre-DM prevalence estimates across studies rather than chance
  3. 3Prediction interval: estimates the 95% confidence interval in which the true pre-DM prevalence estimate in a new study is expected to fall
  4. 4General populations could include healthy population, health care workers, migrant workers, or employees
  5. 5Year range does not cover every single year within that range. In studies with unclear information on when the study was conducted, we subtracted 2 years from the publication year as this was the median of the data collection period and the publication year for the other studies with full information
  6. 6Study period was before and after 2009
  7. 7Pooled estimate, regardless of the tested population, sample size, and data collection period, used the most updated criteria when pre-DM was ascertained, based on different criteria in the same population
  8. NE not estimable, CI confidence interval calculated using the exact binomial method, pre-DM pre-diabetes mellitus, GDM gestational diabetes, WHO World Health Organization, GCT glucose challenge test, OGTT oral glucose tolerance test, DM diabetes mellitus, T2DM type 2 diabetes, ADA American Diabetes Association, IDF International Diabetes Federation, HIV human immunodeficiency syndrome, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; PCOS polycystic ovary syndrome